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PowerPoint ® Lecture Slides prepared by Janice Meeking, Mount Royal College C H A P T E R Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 8 Joints: Part A.

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Presentation on theme: "PowerPoint ® Lecture Slides prepared by Janice Meeking, Mount Royal College C H A P T E R Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 8 Joints: Part A."— Presentation transcript:

1 PowerPoint ® Lecture Slides prepared by Janice Meeking, Mount Royal College C H A P T E R Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 8 Joints: Part A

2 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Joints (Articulations) Articulation—site where two or more bones meet Functions of joints: Give skeleton mobility Hold skeleton together

3 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Classification of Joints There are two ways to classify joints: Functional and Structural Functional Classification of joints is based on amount of movement allowed by the joint Synarthroses—immovable Amphiarthroses—slightly movable Diarthroses—freely movable

4 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Structural Classification of Joints - Based on material binding bones together and whether or not a joint cavity is present (Fibrous, Cartilagenous, Synovial) Three types of fibrous joints: Sutures-occur only between skull bones; jagged articulations w/ short fibers btwn. Syndesmoses- bones connected by ligaments, cords/bands of CT Gomphoses –a peg in socket joint; the only example is a tooth in its bony alveolar socket Classification of Joints

5 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.1a Dense fibrous connective tissue Suture line (a) Suture Joint held together with very short, interconnecting fibers, and bone edges interlock. Found only in the skull.

6 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.1b Fibula Tibia Ligament (b) Syndesmosis Joint held together by a ligament. Fibrous tissue can vary in length, but is longer than in sutures.

7 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.1c Root of tooth Socket of alveolar process Periodontal ligament (c) Gomphosis “Peg in socket” fibrous joint. Periodontal ligament holds tooth in socket.

8 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Cartilagenous Joints: Two types of cartilagenous joints Synchondroses- a bar of hyaline cartilage unites bone; mostly all are synarthrotic; (ex. epiphyseal plates in children) Symphyses – articular surfaces of bones covered with hyaline which is fused to an intervening pad of fibrocartilage (ex. intervertebral discs) Classification of Joints

9 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.2a Epiphyseal plate (temporary hyaline cartilage joint) Sternum (manubrium) Joint between first rib and sternum (immovable) (a) Synchondroses Bones united by hyaline cartilage

10 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.2b Fibrocartilaginous intervertebral disc Pubic symphysis Body of vertebra Hyaline cartilage (b) Symphyses Bones united by fibrocartilage

11 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Synovial Joints General Structures of Synovial Joints Articular cartilage: pad of hyaline cartilage on ends of long bones Joint (synovial) cavity: small potential space; contains synovial fluid A double-layered joint capsule : an outer fibrous capsule (dense irregular CT) and an inner synovial membrane (loose CT)

12 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Synovial Joints General Structures of Synovial Joints Synovial fluid- a viscous fluid occupying joint cavity; lubricates and nourishes articular cartilage May have wedges of fibrocartilage separating the articular surfaces called: menisci Fibrous (bursae) lined with: synovial membrane contains synovial fluid and acts as friction reducing ball bearings

13 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.3 Periosteum Ligament Fibrous capsule Synovial membrane Joint cavity (contains synovial fluid) Articular (hyaline) cartilage Articular capsule

14 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.4b Subacromial bursa Cavity in bursa containing synovial fluid Humerus resting Humerus moving

15 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Types of Synovial Joints Plane-Nonaxial joints, short gliding movements Hinge -Uniaxial joints, flexion and extension only Pivot – Uniaxial joints, rotation Condyloid - Biaxial joints, permit all angular movements Saddle – Biaxial, more movement than condyloid Ball and socket - Multiaxial joints; the most freely moving synovial joints

16 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.7a a b c d e f Nonaxial Uniaxial Biaxial Multiaxial a Plane joint (intercarpal joint)

17 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.7b b Hinge joint (elbow joint) a b c d e f Nonaxial Uniaxial Biaxial Multiaxial

18 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.7c c Pivot joint (proximal radioulnar joint) a b c d e f Nonaxial Uniaxial Biaxial Multiaxial

19 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.7d d Condyloid joint (metacarpophalangeal joint) a b c d e f Nonaxial Uniaxial Biaxial Multiaxial

20 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.7e e Saddle joint (carpometacarpal joint of thumb) a b c d e f Nonaxial Uniaxial Biaxial Multiaxial

21 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.7f f Ball-and-socket joint (shoulder joint) a b c d e f Nonaxial Uniaxial Biaxial Multiaxial

22 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Common Joint Injuries Sprains - Ligaments are stretched or torn; slow to repair themselves Cartilage tears - Due to compression and shear stress, fragments may cause joint to lock or bind; Cartilage rarely repairs itself Dislocations – Bones are forced out of alignment

23 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.14 Torn meniscus

24 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Inflammatory and Degenerative Conditions Bursitis - Inflammation of a bursa, usually caused by a blow or friction Tendonitis - Inflammation of tendon sheaths typically caused by overuse

25 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Arthritis Symptoms; pain, stiffness, and swelling of a joint Acute forms: caused by bacteria, treated with antibiotics Chronic forms: osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and gouty arthritis

26 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Gliding Movements One flat bone surface glides or slips over another similar surface Examples: Intercarpal joints Intertarsal joints Between articular processes of vertebrae

27 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.5a Gliding (a) Gliding movements at the wrist

28 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Angular Movements Movements that occur along the sagittal plane: Flexion—decreases the angle of the joint Extension— increases the angle of the joint Hyperextension—excessive extension beyond normal range of motion

29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.5b (b) Angular movements: flexion, extension, and hyperextension of the neck HyperextensionExtension Flexion

30 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.5c Hyperextension Flexion Extension (c) Angular movements: flexion, extension, and hyperextension of the vertebral column

31 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.5d Extension Flexion (d) Angular movements: flexion and extension at the shoulder and knee

32 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Angular Movements Movements that occur along the frontal plane: Abduction—movement away from the midline Adduction—movement toward the midline Circumduction—flexion + abduction + extension + adduction of a limb so as to describe a cone in space

33 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.5e Abduction Adduction (e) Angular movements: abduction, adduction, and circumduction of the upper limb at the shoulder Circumduction

34 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Rotation The turning of a bone around its own long axis Examples: Between C 1 and C 2 vertebrae Rotation of humerus and femur

35 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.5f Lateral rotation Medial rotation Rotation (f) Rotation of the head, neck, and lower limb

36 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Special Movements Movements of radius around ulna: Supination - lateral rotation of hands Pronation - medial rotation of hands

37 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.6a Supination (radius and ulna are parallel) (a) Pronation (P) and supination (S) Pronation (radius rotates over ulna)

38 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Special Movements Movements of the foot: Dorsiflexion - upward movement Plantar flexion - downward movement

39 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.6b Dorsiflexion Plantar flexion Dorsiflexion Plantar flexion (b) Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion

40 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Special Movements Movements of the foot: Inversion - turn sole medially Eversion - turn sole laterally

41 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.6c Eversion Inversion (c) Inversion and eversion

42 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Special Movements Movements in a transverse plane: Protraction- anterior movement Retraction-posterior movement

43 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.6d Protraction of mandible Retraction of mandible (d) Protraction and retraction

44 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Special Movements Elevation - lifting a body part superiorly Depression - moving a body part inferiorly

45 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.6e Elevation of mandible Depression of mandible (e) Elevation and depression

46 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Special Movements Opposition of the thumb -Movement in the saddle joint so that the thumb touches the tips of the other fingers

47 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.6f (f) Opposition Opposition


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