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Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Human Anatomy & Physiology, Sixth Edition Elaine N. Marieb William A. Simmons.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Human Anatomy & Physiology, Sixth Edition Elaine N. Marieb William A. Simmons."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Human Anatomy & Physiology, Sixth Edition Elaine N. Marieb William A. Simmons PowerPoint ® Lecture Slides prepared by Vince Austin, University of Kentucky 5 Joints and Skeletal Articulations

2 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Joints (Articulations) - know  Articulation – site where two or more bones meet  Functions of joints  Give the skeleton mobility  Hold the skeleton together  Joints are a weak part of the skeleton and are often injured

3 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Classification of Joints: Structural - know  Structural classification focuses on the material binding bones together and whether or not a joint cavity is present  The three structural classifications are: 1.Fibrous (cranial bones) 2.Cartilaginous (ribs – sternum) 3.Synovial (knee)

4 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Classification of Joints: Functional - know  Functional classification is based on the amount of movement allowed by the joint  The three functional classes of joints are: 1.Synarthroses – immovable (cranial bones) 2.Amphiarthroses – slightly movable (vertebrae) 3.Diarthroses – freely movable (knee) We will discuss joints based on structural classification:

5 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 1. Fibrous Joints (structural classification) - know  The bones are joined by fibrous tissues  There is no joint cavity  Most are immovable There are three types – sutures, syndesmoses, and gomphoses

6 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings a. Fibrous Joints: Sutures - know  Occur between the bones of the skull  *Comprised of interlocking junctions completely filled with connective tissue fibers*  Bind bones tightly together, but allow for growth during youth  Skull bones fuse and are called synostoses  Begins as early as age 10-15, generally complete by age 30-50

7 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fibrous Structural Joints: Sutures - example Figure 8.1a

8 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings b. Fibrous Joints: Syndesmoses - know  *Bones are connected by a fibrous tissue ligament*  Movement varies from immovable to slightly variable  Examples include the connection between the tibia and fibula, and the radius and ulna

9 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fibrous Joints: Syndesmoses - example Figure 8.1b

10 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings c. Fibrous Joints: Gomphoses - know  The peg-in-socket fibrous joint between a tooth and its alveolar socket  The fibrous connection is the periodontal ligament

11 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 2. Cartilaginous Joints (structural classification) - know  Articulating bones are united by cartilage  *Lack a joint cavity*  Two types – synchondroses and symphyses

12 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings a. Cartilaginous Joints: Synchondroses - understand  A bar or plate of hyaline cartilage unites the bones  All synchondroses are synarthrotic (immovable)  Examples include:  Epiphyseal plates of children  Joint between the costal cartilage of the 1 st rib and the sternum

13 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cartilaginous Joints: Synchondroses - example Figure 8.2a, b

14 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings b. Cartilaginous Joints: Symphyses - understand  Hyaline cartilage covers the articulating surface of the bone and is fused to an intervening pad of fibrocartilage  Amphiarthrotic (slightly movable) joints designed for strength and flexibility  Examples include intervertebral joints and the pubic symphysis of the pelvis (expansion in female for childbirth)

15 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cartilaginous Joints: Symphyses - example

16 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 3. Synovial Joints (structural classification) - know  Most common  *Those joints in which the articulating bones are separated by a fluid-containing joint cavity*  All are diarthroses (freely movable)  Examples – all limb joints, and most joints of the body (regardless of size!)

17 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Synovial Joints: General Structure - understand All synovial joints have:  Articular cartilage  Joint (synovial) cavity  Articular capsule  Synovial fluid  Reinforcing ligaments

18 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Synovial Joints: General Structure - example Cadaver dissection

19 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Synovial Joints: Friction-Reducing Structures - know These friction-reducing structures are found in synovial joints and are common where ligaments, muscles, skin, tendons, or bones rub together: 1.Bursae – flattened, fibrous sacs lined with synovial membranes and containing synovial fluid 2.Tendon sheath – elongated bursa that wraps completely around a tendon

20 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Synovial Joints: Friction-Reducing Structures – understand complexity

21 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Synovial Joints: Stability - understand Stability is determined by:  Articular surfaces – shape determines what movements are possible  Ligaments – unite bones and prevent excessive or undesirable motion  Muscle tone  Tendons of muscles cross the joint and help stabilize it  The tendons are kept tight by muscle tone

22 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Synovial Joints: Movement - know The two muscle attachments across a joint are:  Origin – attachment to the immovable bone  Insertion – attachment to the movable bone  Described as movement along transverse, frontal, or sagittal planes

23 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Synovial Joints: Range of Motion - know 1.Nonaxial – gliding movements only 2.Uniaxial – movement in one plane 3.Biaxial – movement in two planes 4.Multiaxial – movement in or around all three planes

24 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 1. Gliding Movements - understand  One flat bone surface glides or slips over another similar surface  Examples – intercarpal and intertarsal joints, and between the flat articular processes of the vertebrae

25 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Angular Movement – know – (important slide!) 1.Flexion — bending movement that decreases the angle of the joint 2.Extension — reverse of flexion; joint angle is increased 3.Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion — up and down movement of the foot 4.Abduction — movement away from the midline 5.Adduction — movement toward the midline 6.Circumduction — movement describes a cone in space

26 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Articulations  =3A90BCB40D1A351B&index=1&feature=BF =3A90BCB40D1A351B&index=1&feature=BF

27 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Gliding Movement – know (be able to identify)

28 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Angular Movement – know (be able to identify)

29 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Angular Movement – know (be able to identify)

30 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Angular Movement – know (be able to identify)

31 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings  The turning of a bone around its own long axis  Examples  Between atlas and axis  Hip and shoulder joints Rotation – know (be able to identify)

32 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Special Movements – know (be able to identify)  Supination and pronation  Inversion and eversion  Protraction and retraction  Elevation and depression  Opposition

33 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Special Movements – know (be able to identify)

34 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Special Movements – know (be able to identify)

35 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Special Movements – know (be able to identify) Figure 8.6c

36 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Special Movements – know (be able to identify) Figure 8.6d

37 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Special Movements – know (be able to identify)

38 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings How joints are classified Examples  Link to table of joints Link to table of joints  Medical school site: Joints Medical school site  Arthritis Foundation Website Arthritis Foundation Website

39 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Types of Joints: examples Various kinds of joints. Fibrous: A, syndesmosis (tibiofibular); B, suture (skull). Cartilaginous: C, symphysis (vertebral bodies); D, synchondrosis (first rib and sternum). Synovial: E, condyloid (wrist); F, gliding (radioulnar); G, hinge or ginglymus (elbow); H, ball and socket (hip); I, saddle (carpometacarpal of thumb); J, pivot (atlantoaxial).


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