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ANSC 301 Animal Health.

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Presentation on theme: "ANSC 301 Animal Health."— Presentation transcript:

1 ANSC 301 Animal Health

2 Diseases Any deviation from the normal state of health.
Accurate disease diagnoses is an essential element in any health management program.

3 Health What is normal? 101.5 F Clear runny nose vs ???
Droopy appearance/ watery eyes Off feed and/or water Gait Scours Cough

4 Vaccines Antigen- is any substance that, when introduced parenterally into animal tissue stimulates the production antibodies. Antibody- is any substance that makes its appearance in the body fluids of an animal in response to a stimulus provided by the parenteral introduction of an antigen into the tissues, therefore the antibodies give the desired protection.

5 Types of Vaccines Killed – not as effective yet given to pregnant females Can be stored for a longer period of time Modified Live – more effective yet should not be given to pregnant females Cannot be stored as long

6 Most Common diseases vaccinated against in Texas in Cattle
Clostridial Diseases Bacillary Hemoglobinuria (Red Water Disease) Blackleg caused by Cl. Chauvoei Enterotoxemias caused by Cl. Perfringens type C&D Infectious necrotic hepatitis caused by Cl. Novi Malignant edema caused by Cl. Septicum Big head caused by Cl. Sordellii Brucellosis Vibrio Leptospirosis IBR-IPV BVD Parainfluenza 3 BRSV Pneumonic Pateurellosi s Haemophilosis Anthrax

7 Tuberculosis A serious bacterial disease Affects respiratory system
Three main types: Human, cattle, avian Avian is restricted to birds Bovine can affect many warm blooded vertebrates Can be transmitted to hogs and dogs

8 Tuberculosis Symptoms Treatment Prevention Usually no signs of ailment
Test and slaughter reactors Report to state veterinarian Prevention Periodic testing

9 Soremouth Contagious ecthyma
Signs – difficulty eating, spreading lesions to the does udder Vaccination – use live virus by scarifying the skin and painting on the vaccine.

10 Contagious Pustular Dermatitis (Sore Mouth)
Cause: infectious viral disease (affects animals and humans) Symptoms: Pimples around the nose, mouth, eyes, anus, and hoofs. These turn to watery blisters then to sticky, encrusted scabs. The mouth and gums swell. Can cause death if the animal is unable to eat.

11 Soremouth

12 Sore Mouth cont… Treatment: Isolate the goat and use an antibiotic spray or ointment. Vaccination is not recommended. Use a medication with Cephapirin Benzathine.

13 Pinkeye Infectious keratoconjunctivitis.
Occurs in warm and hot weather because it is spread be flies and close contact. Highly contagious. Prevention – good sanitation, and fly control.

14 Pinkeye Cause: spread by flies, dust and long grass
Symptoms: watery eye, red and cornea is cloudy, sensitive to light Treatment: flush eyes with penicillin or Oxytetracycline for a few days and also isolate the animal from other animals. Broad spectrum antibiotics, sprays and powders. Remove from sunlight and cover with patch.

15 Pinkeye (Moraxella bovis)
Symptoms Water eyes Swelling Corneal opacity ulceration Transmission Commonly associated with irritants (dust, stress, sunlight, grass, weeds, pollen, etc.) Face flies

16 Pinkeye Treatment Prevention Oxytetracycline Patch over infected eye
Control of flies Isolate infected animals Select breeding animals with eyelid pigmentation

17 Pinkeye

18 Tetanus Symptoms Transmission Spasms Contractions of voluntary muscles
High mortality rate Transmission Through wounds Especially deep puncture wounds Treatment= antibiotics, tranquilizers, high doses of tetanus anitoxins Prevention= avoid contamination of open wounds vaccinate in high risk areas

19 Tetanus cont. Anti-toxin vs toxoid Booster is a must
Clostridium perfringens type C & D, primarily type D.

20 Foot Rot Necrotic Pododermatitis, Interdigital Necrobacillosis, fusobacterium necrophorum Known to live in the soil for > 10 mos. Causes lameness in cattle Incubation is about 5 days Foot tissue or skin has to be broken for introduction of bacteria Stones, plant stubble, wire, nails, glass, etc. are all culprits of causing cuts or abrasions that lead to infection

21 Foot Rot Cause: Flusiformis nodosus infection enters the hoof & causes inflammation of the sensitive laminae Symptoms: mild to severe lameness, animals are reluctant to walk; associated with a foul smell Treatment: Hoof paring in order to remove the underrun hoof. Apply antiseptics to remove any infection.

22 Foot Rot 5% CuSO4 or 5% formalin are used as walk-in foot baths at dairies Also, antibiotics such as Naxcel, Nuflor, LA 200, Sulmet, tetracycline powders are used If possible, clean and trim the foot of dead tissue and then apply an antiseptic

23 Pneumonia Cause: infection of the lung Respiratory Problem
Prevention – decrease stress by providing dry, well-ventilated housing with adequate space. Symptoms – unthriftiness, runny nose, loss of appetite and high temp.

24 Pneumonia Symptoms cont.: stops eating, hangs head, sounds congested, rapid or difficulty coughing and breathing Treatment – Antibiotics and correction of predisposing factors with environmental conditions. Oxytetrocycline; if severe, may require veterinary-only drugs

25 Mycoplasma Hyopneumonia
Cause – mycoplasma hyopneumonia bacteria Infectious respiratory disease of swine Prevalence – 80 – 90% of US swine herds Transmission – animal to animal contact

26 Mycoplasma Hyopneumonia cont.
Clinical signs Sneezing Dry cough Listlessness Poor growth performance Economic Losses Death loss Reduced feed efficiency 10 – 30% gain

27 Mycoplasma Hyopneumonia cont.
Treatment – antibiotics – Lincomycin Control – depopulation Can live with it with good management, i.e. no stress, good nutrition

28 Atrophic Rhinitis Cause Transmission Bordetella bacteria
Pasturella bacteria Transmission Pig to pig contact

29 Atrophic Rhinitis cont.
Clinical signs Affects nasal turbinate bone development Early sign in baby pigs Sneezing Distortion of nose Pneumonia Black areas around eyes

30 Atrophic Rhinitis cont.
Control Vaccination Depopulation – only way to completely get rid of antibiotics

31 Porcine Reproductive & Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS)

32 What is in a name? Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome has been called by many names, but now is referred to as PRRS Other names were/are: Mystery Swine Disease (name first given to the disease) Mystery Reproductive Syndrome Swine Infertility and Respiratory Syndrome (SIRS) Blue Ear Disease Lelystad Virus (virus that causes PRRS) Advanced Swine Production

33 What is PRRS? PRRS was discovered in 1987 in the United States and 1991 in the Netherlands, soon spreading throughout all of Canada and Europe. There are so many different strains of PRRS that preventative vaccines are not 100% effective. PRRS is a virus that causes reproductive failure in breeding stock and respiratory tract failure in young pigs. PRRS costs the United States swine industry approximately $600 million yearly. Advanced Swine Production

34 Researchers at the University of Minnesota hypothesized that:
Origination Researchers at the University of Minnesota hypothesized that: “A mutant of a closely related arterivirus of mice (lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus) infected wild boars in central Europe These wild boars functioned as intermediate hosts and spread the virus to North Carolina in imported, infected European wild boars in 1912; the virus then evolved independently on the two continents in the prevalent wild hog populations for approximately years until independently entering the domestic pig population.” - Peter G.W. Plagemann Advanced Swine Production

35 Symptoms/Problems in Pigs
PRRS is more severe in nursery pigs than in finishing pigs. Severe pneumonia with coughing & labored breathing Increased pre-weaning sickness & death Pigs with PRRS will take longer to finish High fever Depression (shows in finishing pigs) Advanced Swine Production

36 Transmission of PRRS Introduction of infected hogs into the herd
Mucus / Nose to Nose Urine Feces Semen (both artificial insemination and natural) Air (possible but not as likely) Blood Advanced Swine Production

37 A common misconception about PRRS is that if the hog acquires the virus and lives, it will then be immune for the rest of its life. This is not true, not only can the hog acquire the disease again, but could also recover and live out its days as carrier (showing no signs). Advanced Swine Production

38 Prevention PRRS vaccine (not 100% effective & consideration needs to be taken due to the fact it is a modified live virus) Clean farrowing houses Disinfection & drying of pens Better management practices Quarantine incoming hogs for 60 days Realize facility’s limitations and do not overcrowd Prevent infected stock from entering herd Do “homework” on potential purchases, investigate the herd, herdsman and general management practices before committing to buy. Advanced Swine Production

39 What is Circovirus? There are actually two types of Circovirus:
Porcine Circovirus (PCV) 1 – PCV-1 Porcine Circovirus (PCV) 2 – PCV-2

40 PCV-1 PCV-1 & PCV-2 were found as far back as 1969, but was not isolated and studied until 1974. PCV-1 has not been found to cause any disease in swine and research has not established any clinical significance to PCV-1.

41 PCV-2 In 1995 researchers noticed that when PMWS (post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome) was diagnosed, by association they proposed the idea that PCV-2 sometimes caused PMWS.

42 PCV-2 In 1999, after many studies, research confirmed that PCV-2 causes PMWS. It also causes PRDC (porcine respiratory disease complex) and PDNS (porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome). Note: studies have shown that PCV-2 generally must be combined with extenuating circumstances to turn into Circovirus. If most herds were tested, PCV-1 & PCV-2 would show up in the blood, but rarely shows clinical signs or manifests into other syndromes.

43 If pigs are infected with PCV-2 symptoms generally appear from 5 -18 weeks of age.

44 Symptoms of PCV-2 Poor growth Swollen lymph nodes Diarrhea
Stomach ulcers Fever Jaundice Difficulty breathing Weight loss Skin rashes

45 Transmission of PCV-2 Much like any other disease PCV & PCV-2 are passed through: Blood Urine Feces Mucous

46 Reasons for Manifestation of PCV-2
Not completely known, but researchers think it is a combination of the following: Presence of PCV-2 in herd Environmental conditions (weather, cleanliness of barns, etc.) Stress

47 Every-day Prevention Quarantine new hogs
Foot dip for humans entering farrowing houses Maintain proper ventilation Stay up to date with vaccinations for other diseases Promptly treat ill pigs Control rodent, insect and bird population near the hog pens and barns

48 Henry Gauvreau, Porcine Swine Update, 2001
“Current studies suggest that when the immune system becomes activated fighting off a disease challenge and the pig also is infected with PCV-2, the circovirus infection may become overwhelming and result in PMWS.” Henry Gauvreau, Porcine Swine Update, 2001

49 Bloat Cause: gorging on anything unsuitable (example: wet grass pastures or raiding food bin) Symptoms: Tightly inflated flanks, collapse, and misery Treatment: Drench goat with vegetable or other oil (6-8 oz for adults & 2+ oz for kids), walk goat around, massage flanks. Contact veterinarian if this does not help.

50 Caseous Lymphadenitis (CL)
Cause: Bacteria enters the goat through breaks in skin or mucus membranes and localizes in lymph node. Symptoms: Abscesses of the lymph glands. Treatment: Have a Vet test to see if the abscess is CL. Isolate the goat, lance the abscess and remove discharge, then treat with iodine several times. Destroy all discharge.

51 Caseous Lymphadenitis (CL)

52 Urinary Calculi Cause: A hard mass of mineral salts in the urinary tract caused by a dietary mineral imbalance. Urinary calculi is usually seen in bucks. Symptoms: straining to urinate, restlessness, vocal signs of pain, pawing at the ground, and looking at its abdomen Treatment: Consult your veterinarian. Stone (suture 1 inch in length)

53 Scours More common in young kids.
Caused by coccidia, E. coli, worms, salmonella, and viruses. Signs – anorexia (won’t eat), high temp, weakness, and watery or pasty feces. Prevention – good sanitation. Treatment – antibiotics, intestinal astringents (bolus or fluid to decrease contractions), and fluid and electrolyte therapy.

54 Parasites Internal- present inside the animal, but their eggs are microscopic in size. The economic loss is great, but a slow continuous process External- live off of the flesh and/or blood of the cattle. They can mechanically transmit the organisms that cause pinkeye, mastitis, and other infectious diseases to cattle.

55 Internal Parasites Stomach Worms Cooperids Hookworms Tapeworms
Intestinal Threadworm Common Liver Fluke Giant Liver Fluke Lancet Fluke Stomach Flukes Coccidiosis Much more ………….

56 Stomach Worms Large Stomach Worm Medium Stomach Worm
Small Stomach Worm

57 Nematode Life Cycle


59 Products Used to Treat Internal Parasites:
*Ivomec Sheep Drench (Ivermectin) *Tramisol or Levasole (Levamisole) *Bovatec (Lasalocid Sodium) *Rumensin (Monensin *Corid (Amprolium) *Dectomax (Doramectin) *Valbazen (Albendazole) *Panacur (Fenbendazole) * Many of these products are not labeled for use in goats. Their use in these cases is considered "extra-label."









68 Parasites of Growing Pigs
Ascaris suum, large roundworm Oesophagostomum spp., nodular worm Trichuris suis, whipworm Metastrongylus, lungworm

69 External Parasites Flies Lice Ticks Grubs/Heelfly

70 Fly Infestation Horn Flies

71 Lice Most abundant during winter and spring.
Only treat in in the late fall and early winter Treat with pour-ons, injections as well as backrubbers or periodic spraying of insecticides Be sure to watch withdrawal periods on all products used to control parasites.

72 Lice

73 Lice - Damalinia

74 Flies Face fly and Horn fly Suck blood and irritate cattle
In some areas flies have developed resistance to certain products. Producers should alternate between: Sprays, dust bags, backrubbers, pour-ons and feed additives, as well as ear tags or tape.

75 Flies - Lucilia, Calliphora, Chrysomya

76 Grubs/Heelfly Reduce milk production Reduce weight gain
And diminish hide value A big loss is due to carcass trim andf lower meat quality They are the larval stage of the heel fly

77 Grub Prevetion is best when the life cycle of the grub worm is learned
Effective treatments are: Co-Ral, Ivomec, Spotton, Tiguron Warbex, Dectomax

78 Grub Infestation

79 Coccidiosis Common in young kids.
Flourish in pens with manure buildup. Cause: Coccidia parasites Eradication is difficult once the facilities are infected. Signs – diarrhea, loss of condition, general unthriftiness, poor growth, dehydration, blood in diarrhea, off feed, rapid weight loss, and fever

80 Coccidiosis Treatment – coccidiostats added to water and feed and strict sanitation. Treatment: Treat with Biosol, give orally once a day for 5-7 days. Can also treat with half Corid or Sulmet Also, can put Decox in the mineral

81 Ringworm- fungus


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