2Diseases Any deviation from the normal state of health. Accurate disease diagnoses is an essential element in any health management program.
3Health What is normal? 101.5 F Clear runny nose vs ??? Droopy appearance/ watery eyesOff feed and/or waterGaitScoursCough
4VaccinesAntigen- is any substance that, when introduced parenterally into animal tissue stimulates the production antibodies.Antibody- is any substance that makes its appearance in the body fluids of an animal in response to a stimulus provided by the parenteral introduction of an antigen into the tissues, therefore the antibodies give the desired protection.
5Types of VaccinesKilled – not as effective yet given to pregnant femalesCan be stored for a longer period of timeModified Live – more effective yet should not be given to pregnant femalesCannot be stored as long
6Most Common diseases vaccinated against in Texas in Cattle Clostridial DiseasesBacillary Hemoglobinuria (Red Water Disease)Blackleg caused by Cl. ChauvoeiEnterotoxemias caused by Cl. Perfringens type C&DInfectious necrotic hepatitis caused by Cl. NoviMalignant edema caused by Cl. SepticumBig head caused by Cl. SordelliiBrucellosisVibrioLeptospirosisIBR-IPVBVDParainfluenza 3BRSVPneumonic Pateurellosi sHaemophilosisAnthrax
7Tuberculosis A serious bacterial disease Affects respiratory system Three main types:Human, cattle, avianAvian is restricted to birdsBovine can affect many warm blooded vertebratesCan be transmitted to hogs and dogs
8Tuberculosis Symptoms Treatment Prevention Usually no signs of ailment Test and slaughter reactorsReport to state veterinarianPreventionPeriodic testing
9Soremouth Contagious ecthyma Signs – difficulty eating, spreading lesions to the does udderVaccination – use live virus by scarifying the skin and painting on the vaccine.
10Contagious Pustular Dermatitis (Sore Mouth) Cause: infectious viral disease (affects animals and humans)Symptoms: Pimples around the nose, mouth, eyes, anus, and hoofs. These turn to watery blisters then to sticky, encrusted scabs. The mouth and gums swell. Can cause death if the animal is unable to eat.
12Sore Mouth cont…Treatment: Isolate the goat and use an antibiotic spray or ointment. Vaccination is not recommended. Use a medication with Cephapirin Benzathine.
13Pinkeye Infectious keratoconjunctivitis. Occurs in warm and hot weather because it is spread be flies and close contact.Highly contagious.Prevention – good sanitation, and fly control.
14Pinkeye Cause: spread by flies, dust and long grass Symptoms: watery eye, red and cornea is cloudy, sensitive to lightTreatment: flush eyes with penicillin or Oxytetracycline for a few days and also isolate the animal from other animals. Broad spectrum antibiotics, sprays and powders. Remove from sunlight and cover with patch.
18Tetanus Symptoms Transmission Spasms Contractions of voluntary muscles High mortality rateTransmissionThrough woundsEspecially deep puncture woundsTreatment= antibiotics, tranquilizers, high doses of tetanus anitoxinsPrevention= avoid contamination of open wounds vaccinate in high risk areas
19Tetanus cont. Anti-toxin vs toxoid Booster is a must Clostridium perfringens type C & D, primarily type D.
20Foot RotNecrotic Pododermatitis, Interdigital Necrobacillosis, fusobacterium necrophorumKnown to live in the soil for > 10 mos.Causes lameness in cattleIncubation is about 5 daysFoot tissue or skin has to be broken for introduction of bacteriaStones, plant stubble, wire, nails, glass, etc. are all culprits of causing cuts or abrasions that lead to infection
21Foot RotCause: Flusiformis nodosus infection enters the hoof & causes inflammation of the sensitive laminaeSymptoms: mild to severe lameness, animals are reluctant to walk; associated with a foul smellTreatment: Hoof paring in order to remove the underrun hoof. Apply antiseptics to remove any infection.
22Foot Rot5% CuSO4 or 5% formalin are used as walk-in foot baths at dairiesAlso, antibiotics such as Naxcel, Nuflor, LA 200, Sulmet, tetracycline powders are usedIf possible, clean and trim the foot of dead tissue and then apply an antiseptic
23Pneumonia Cause: infection of the lung Respiratory Problem Prevention – decrease stress by providing dry, well-ventilated housing with adequate space.Symptoms – unthriftiness, runny nose, loss of appetite and high temp.
24PneumoniaSymptoms cont.: stops eating, hangs head, sounds congested, rapid or difficulty coughing and breathingTreatment – Antibiotics and correction of predisposing factors with environmental conditions. Oxytetrocycline; if severe, may require veterinary-only drugs
25Mycoplasma Hyopneumonia Cause – mycoplasma hyopneumonia bacteriaInfectious respiratory disease of swinePrevalence – 80 – 90% of US swine herdsTransmission – animal to animal contact
32What is in a name?Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome has been called by many names, but now is referred to as PRRSOther names were/are:Mystery Swine Disease (name first given to the disease)Mystery Reproductive SyndromeSwine Infertility and Respiratory Syndrome (SIRS)Blue Ear DiseaseLelystad Virus (virus that causes PRRS)Advanced Swine Production
33What is PRRS?PRRS was discovered in 1987 in the United States and 1991 in the Netherlands, soon spreading throughout all of Canada and Europe.There are so many different strains of PRRS that preventative vaccines are not 100% effective.PRRS is a virus that causes reproductive failure in breeding stock and respiratory tract failure in young pigs.PRRS costs the United States swine industry approximately $600 million yearly.Advanced Swine Production
34Researchers at the University of Minnesota hypothesized that: OriginationResearchers at the University of Minnesota hypothesized that:“A mutant of a closely related arterivirus of mice (lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus) infected wild boars in central Europe These wild boars functioned as intermediate hosts and spread the virus to North Carolina in imported, infected European wild boars in 1912; the virus then evolved independently on the two continents in the prevalent wild hog populations for approximately years until independently entering the domestic pig population.”- Peter G.W. PlagemannAdvanced Swine Production
35Symptoms/Problems in Pigs PRRS is more severe in nursery pigs than in finishing pigs.Severe pneumonia with coughing & labored breathingIncreased pre-weaning sickness & deathPigs with PRRS will take longer to finishHigh feverDepression (shows in finishing pigs)Advanced Swine Production
36Transmission of PRRS Introduction of infected hogs into the herd Mucus / Nose to NoseUrineFecesSemen (both artificial insemination and natural)Air (possible but not as likely)BloodAdvanced Swine Production
37A common misconception about PRRS is that if the hog acquires the virus and lives, it will then be immune for the rest of its life. This is not true, not only can the hog acquire the disease again, but could also recover and live out its days as carrier (showing no signs).Advanced Swine Production
38PreventionPRRS vaccine (not 100% effective & consideration needs to be taken due to the fact it is a modified live virus)Clean farrowing housesDisinfection & drying of pensBetter management practicesQuarantine incoming hogs for 60 daysRealize facility’s limitations and do not overcrowdPrevent infected stock from entering herdDo “homework” on potential purchases, investigate the herd, herdsman and general management practices before committing to buy.Advanced Swine Production
39What is Circovirus? There are actually two types of Circovirus: Porcine Circovirus (PCV) 1 – PCV-1Porcine Circovirus (PCV) 2 – PCV-2
40PCV-1PCV-1 & PCV-2 were found as far back as 1969, but was not isolated and studied until 1974.PCV-1 has not been found to cause any disease in swine and research has not established any clinical significance to PCV-1.
41PCV-2In 1995 researchers noticed that when PMWS (post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome) was diagnosed, by association they proposed the idea that PCV-2 sometimes caused PMWS.
42PCV-2In 1999, after many studies, research confirmed that PCV-2 causes PMWS.It also causes PRDC (porcine respiratory disease complex) and PDNS (porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome).Note: studies have shown that PCV-2 generally must be combined with extenuating circumstances to turn into Circovirus.If most herds were tested, PCV-1 & PCV-2 would show up in the blood, but rarely shows clinical signs or manifests into other syndromes.
43If pigs are infected with PCV-2 symptoms generally appear from 5 -18 weeks of age.
45Transmission of PCV-2Much like any other disease PCV & PCV-2 are passed through:BloodUrineFecesMucous
46Reasons for Manifestation of PCV-2 Not completely known, but researchers think it is a combination of the following:Presence of PCV-2 in herdEnvironmental conditions (weather, cleanliness of barns, etc.)Stress
47Every-day Prevention Quarantine new hogs Foot dip for humans entering farrowing housesMaintain proper ventilationStay up to date with vaccinations for other diseasesPromptly treat ill pigsControl rodent, insect and bird population near the hog pens and barns
48Henry Gauvreau, Porcine Swine Update, 2001 “Current studies suggest that when the immune system becomes activated fighting off a disease challenge and the pig also is infected with PCV-2, the circovirus infection may become overwhelming and result in PMWS.”Henry Gauvreau, Porcine Swine Update, 2001
49BloatCause: gorging on anything unsuitable (example: wet grass pastures or raiding food bin)Symptoms: Tightly inflated flanks, collapse, and miseryTreatment: Drench goat with vegetable or other oil (6-8 oz for adults & 2+ oz for kids), walk goat around, massage flanks. Contact veterinarian if this does not help.
50Caseous Lymphadenitis (CL) Cause: Bacteria enters the goat through breaks in skin or mucus membranes and localizes in lymph node.Symptoms: Abscesses of the lymph glands.Treatment: Have a Vet test to see if the abscess is CL. Isolate the goat, lance the abscess and remove discharge, then treat with iodine several times. Destroy all discharge.
52Urinary CalculiCause: A hard mass of mineral salts in the urinary tract caused by a dietary mineral imbalance. Urinary calculi is usually seen in bucks.Symptoms: straining to urinate, restlessness, vocal signs of pain, pawing at the ground, and looking at its abdomenTreatment: Consult your veterinarian.Stone (suture 1 inch in length)
53Scours More common in young kids. Caused by coccidia, E. coli, worms, salmonella, and viruses.Signs – anorexia (won’t eat), high temp, weakness, and watery or pasty feces.Prevention – good sanitation.Treatment – antibiotics, intestinal astringents (bolus or fluid to decrease contractions), and fluid and electrolyte therapy.
54ParasitesInternal- present inside the animal, but their eggs are microscopic in size. The economic loss is great, but a slow continuous processExternal- live off of the flesh and/or blood of the cattle. They can mechanically transmit the organisms that cause pinkeye, mastitis, and other infectious diseases to cattle.
59Products Used to Treat Internal Parasites: *Ivomec Sheep Drench (Ivermectin)*Tramisol or Levasole (Levamisole)*Bovatec (Lasalocid Sodium)*Rumensin (Monensin*Corid (Amprolium)*Dectomax (Doramectin)*Valbazen (Albendazole)*Panacur (Fenbendazole)* Many of these products are not labeled for use in goats. Their use in these cases is considered "extra-label."
71Lice Most abundant during winter and spring. Only treat in in the late fall and early winterTreat with pour-ons, injections as well as backrubbers or periodic spraying of insecticidesBe sure to watch withdrawal periods on all products used to control parasites.
74Flies Face fly and Horn fly Suck blood and irritate cattle In some areas flies have developed resistance to certain products.Producers should alternate between:Sprays, dust bags, backrubbers, pour-ons and feed additives, as well as ear tags or tape.
79Coccidiosis Common in young kids. Flourish in pens with manure buildup.Cause: Coccidia parasitesEradication is difficult once the facilities are infected.Signs – diarrhea, loss of condition, general unthriftiness, poor growth, dehydration, blood in diarrhea, off feed, rapid weight loss, and fever
80CoccidiosisTreatment – coccidiostats added to water and feed and strict sanitation.Treatment: Treat with Biosol, give orally once a day for 5-7 days. Can also treat with half Corid or Sulmet Also, can put Decox in the mineral