Brucellosis Bacteria – Brucella abortus Localized infection in uterus, udder, testes & joints – abortion in last trimester of pregnancy Diagnose with blood or fetal tissue sample Transmissible to humans – undulant fever Federally monitored Prevent with calfhood vaccination – 4 to 8 mo. (recommended but not required). Must be done by DVM – records at MDA
Leptospirosis Bacteria – 5 strains Fever, off feed, abortion at any time, anemia, clotted milk & bloody urine Diagnose with blood or fetal tissue sample Annual vaccination is recommended in Michigan Deer and wildlife can carry the bacteria
Campylobacteriosis Bacteria – Vibrio fetus Irregular heat cycle (fetus dies after fertilization and is reabsorbed) (4 to 7 mo.) True venereal disease that is spread via natural service. Diagnose with vaginal or preputial mucous Vaccinate prior to breeding season
Trichomoniasis Protozoa – Trichomonas fetus True venereal disease Diagnose with vaginal or preputial mucous Use A.I., virgin bulls and vaccinate prior to breeding season.
Respiratory Disease Complex Same as earlier discussion with feedlot cattle. IBR, BVD, PI3 BRSV Pneumonia IBR and BVD can cause abortion
Calf Scours Chronic &/or acute diarrhea of calves – usually occurs in the first two weeks after birth. Causative agents –E. coli –Rota/corona viruses Sanitation & Colostrum are very important. Vaccinate cows prior to calving &/or calves at birth.
Calf Scours (continued) Treatment –Prevent dehydration with electrolytes 8% fluid loss = depression, 12% = death 1 quart orally every 4 to 6 hours –Antibiotics and sulfa boluses. –Keep calf warm and stress free –Isolate infected calves to prevent infection of other calves.
Tuberculosis Mycobacterium bovis Somewhat transmissible to humans Federally monitored Michigan was declared free of TB in TB found in deer in 1994 and in other wildlife since then. Pneumonia and abscessed lymph nodes. Diagnose with caudal fold test.
Tuberculosis (continued) Several positive cases have been diagnosed in northeastern part of lower peninsula. Michigan lost it’s “TB free” status, but now is hoping to achieve “split state” status. All bovine in state are being tested. Whole herd annual test is recommended. May take 20 years or longer to eradicate.
Johnes Mycobacterium paratuberculosis Chronic diarrhea and weight loss Incubation period can be several years before symptoms appear. Diagnose with blood & fecal tests Cull infected animals and prevent fecal contamination. Some herds are doing annual tests.
Anaplasmosis Blood disease spread by ticks, flies and mosquitos in southern U.S. High fever, anemia and death Vaccinate &/or treat with antibiotics Some states (WI) and Canada require a negative test before entry
Bluetongue Viral disease in western U.S. spread by ticks & flies Ulcers in mouth, fever & lameness Vaccinate or treat with antibiotics and sulfa.
Pinkeye Inflammation of mucous membranes near the eye followed by opaque cornea. Acute cases result in permanent loss of sight. Face flies are the primary carrier. Vaccinate or treat with cortisone and antibiotics. Eye patch will protect eye during recovery period Breeds lacking pigmentation around eyes are more susceptible.
Fly Control Spraying, dusting, dipping, ear tags & oral larvacides Sanitation – remove breeding sites of flies Ear tags impregnated with insecticides have been very effective Change brands each year to avoid resistant strains.
Lice & Grubs Usually apply a “pour-on” organophosphate compound in the fall. Some products are effective for both internal and external parasites. –Ivermectin, Dectomax, Eprinex, etc. Others are effective only against lice – Lysoff Observe cut off dates for your area
Internal Parasites Roundworms, tapeworms and flukes Anemia, reduced performance and rough haircoats are symptoms Several anthelmintics (de-worming agents) are available as bolus, paste, injectable, etc. Usually de-worm the breeding herd twice per year to break the life cycle of the parasites
Nutritional Diseases Michigan is deficient in iodine, cobalt, selenium and marginal in copper. Most of these can be supplemented in trace mineral salt. Grass tetany is due to a magnesium deficiency in lush growing forage. Include MgO in mineral mix, if it is a problem. Legume bloat – Poloxalene may help. Toxins – some pasture plants can be toxic.