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Equine Science & Technology Equine Diseases. Anthrax (Splenic Fever) Anthrax- an acute infectious disease affecting horses and other warm-blooded animals.

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Presentation on theme: "Equine Science & Technology Equine Diseases. Anthrax (Splenic Fever) Anthrax- an acute infectious disease affecting horses and other warm-blooded animals."— Presentation transcript:

1 Equine Science & Technology Equine Diseases

2 Anthrax (Splenic Fever) Anthrax- an acute infectious disease affecting horses and other warm-blooded animals.  Horses usually contract the disease by ingestion of the soil, vegetation, or water contaminated with bacterial spores.  Identified by a microscopic examination of the blood, in which will be found Bacilli anthracis.

3 Equine Diseases Anthrax (Splenic Fever)  The first indication of the disease may be the presence of severe symptoms of colic, accompanied by high temperature, loss of appetite, muscular weakness, depression, etc.  Disease can be prevented by immunization.

4 Equine Diseases Diarrhea in Foals Diarrhea is one of the most common disorders in foals.  Can be caused by: mare’s first heat after foaling, dietary changes, parasites, and infectious agents, such as bacteria or viruses.  The symptoms and signs of foal diarrhea are depression, diarrhea, and loss of appetite.

5 Equine Diseases Diarrhea in Foals  In severe diarrhea, the foal may have fever and reddened mucous membranes.  Diarrhea can most effectively be treated if discovered early.

6 Equine Diseases Equine Influenza  A highly contagious respiratory disease widespread throughout the world.  Caused by a group of viruses.  Outbreaks frequently appear where a number of horses are assembled.

7 Equine Diseases Equine Influenza  Virus itself is carried in contaminated water and on contaminated feed, bedding, buckets, brooms, clothing, etc.  Treatment should be handled by the veterinarian and consists of isolation of affected animals.

8 Equine Diseases Lyme Disease  Spread by ticks.  Most common symptoms in horses are shifting-leg lameness, fever, muscle aches and pains, limb swelling, eye inflammation, and abortion.  Many horses may be exposed to the agent without developing clinical disease.

9 Equine Diseases Lyme Disease  Lyme disease is fairly simple to treat using Penicillin and tetracycline.

10 Equine Diseases West Nile Virus  Virus is spread and carried by mosquitoes.  One of the newest diseases to affect horses in the U.S.  There is no specific treatment for the disease; treatment is based on presenting signs.  A vaccine for West Nile Virus is available, but its effectiveness is unknown.

11 Equine Diseases Rabies  An acute infectious disease of horses and all other warm-blooded animals.  Characterized by deranged consciousness and paralysis.  Caused by a virus that is usually carried into a bite wound by infected saliva.  Treatment is not advisable as infected animals eventually die.

12 Equine Diseases Equine Infectious Anemia (Swamp Fever)  A serious viral disease sometimes referred to as swamp fever, mountain fever, slow fever or malarial fever.  Once infected virus remains in the blood for life.  Virus is spread by biting insects, especially flies, but may also be spread by hypodermic needles.

13 Equine Diseases Equine Infectious Anemia (Swamp Fever)  Symptoms include: high and intermittent fever, depression, stiffness and weakness, loss of weight, anemia, etc.  Treatment has been unsuccessful because there is no method known to destroy the virus in the bloodstream.

14 Equine Diseases Body Temperature  Normally ranging from 100 to 102°F.  Body temperature is affected by stable or outside temperature, exercise, excitement, age, feed, etc.  Temperature is measured by inserting the thermometer into the rectum.

15 Equine Diseases Pulse Rate  Indicates the rapidity of the heart action.  Pulse is taken either at the margin of the jaw, at the inside of the elbow, or under the tail.  Pulse rate can increase with exercise, excitement, digestion, and high outside temperatures.

16 Equine Diseases Respiration Rate  Determined by placing the hand on the flank, by observing the rise and fall of the flank, or, in the winter, by watching the breath condensate coming from the nostrils.  Rapid breathing due to recent exercise, excitement, hot weather, or poorly ventilated buildings should not be confused with disease.  In foals the normal respiratory rate may approach 40 breaths per minute.

17 Equine Diseases Immune reactions are characterized by the ability of the horse to resist and/or overcome disease through either (1) natural immunity or (2) acquired immunity. Natural Immunity  First line of defense. However, it is nonspecific. The immune cells attack any bacteria they are not programmed for a specific organism.

18 Equine Diseases Acquired Immunity  Immunity that is specific for a certain organism.  Can be either active or passive.

19 Equine Diseases Acquired Immunity  Active Immunity-immunity that results from the immune system being stimulated to produce antibodies.  Active immunity is not developed until after one or two weeks, but is far more lasting.  If animal is injected with antibodies produced by another individual, the immunity is referred to as passive immunity.

20 Equine Diseases Acquired Immunity  Young suckling mammals obtain passive immunity from the colostrum that they obtain from their mothers following birth.  Passive immunity confers immunity upon injection, but the immunity disappears quickly, usually within three to six weeks.

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