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External Parasites of Livestock

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Presentation on theme: "External Parasites of Livestock"— Presentation transcript:

1 External Parasites of Livestock

2 External Parasites Parasite: an organism living at the expense of another organism or host. Host: Animal which serves as a residence for a parasite. External Parasite: Live outside of the digestive, circulatory, and reproductive systems or other internal organs of livestock.

3 External Parasites Types of External Parasites Ticks Mites Flies Lice

4 Ticks Hosts 2 types All types of livestock
Major threat to cattle and horses 2 types Soft ticks: outer shell is soft Feed rapidly and then leave host. Hard ticks: outer shell is hard Feeds slowly and takes a large meal. Drops from host to lay eggs.

5 Ticks Hard Shell Ticks Lone Star Tick: in wooded and brushy areas.
Problem in the spring and summer Gulf Coast Tick: found in gulf coast area Problem in late summer and early fall

6 Ticks Soft Shell Ticks Life Cycle
Spinose Ear Tick: Attaches deep within the ear Not a problem in Texas, it is a big pest in other states. Life Cycle Adults lay eggs that hatch into larvae Larvae find hosts such as birds Larvae becomes Nymphs Nymphs attach to host (Livestock) and become adults

7 Ticks Damage Cause inflammation, itching, and swelling at the site of the bite. Ticks suck animals blood which can result in anemia, weight loss, and even death. Ticks can also create wounds that can become infected if not taken care of. Spread diseases.

8 Ticks Symptoms Usually found by visual inspection.
Livestock will rub on objects, and sometimes carry their heads in an unnatural position. index.cfm?event=sit...

9 Mites Hosts: All livestock 2 Types Life Cycle
Surface mites- Stay on the surface of animal Burrowing mites-Burrow into the skin Life Cycle Spend entire life on host Adult lays eggs that hatch into larvae Larvae molt & become nymphs Nymphs molt and become adults

10 Mites Damage Hair comes out and skin can become rough and crusty. Also can be called mange or scabies Symptoms Falling hair and rough, red skin can become visible. Animals will scratch on anything

11 Lice Hosts: All species of livestock
There is only one species that affects swine. Spread by animal to animal contact 2 types Sucking lice- larger and take blood meals Biting Lice- feed on dead skin and feathers

12 Lice Life Cycle Adult female glues her eggs to hairs of host
Eggs hatch into nymphs Nymphs become mature adults

13 Lice Cattle Biting Cattle Louse Short-nosed Cattle louse
Long-nosed Cattle Louse Cattle Tail Louse Little Blue Louse

14 Lice Hogs Sheep Hog Louse- Only species that feeds on hogs
Sheep Biting Louse Sheep Sucking Body Louse Sheep Foot Louse Hog Louse

15 Lice Goats Horses Goat Sucking Lice Large, Yellow Louse
Angora Goat Biting Louse Goat Biting Louse Horses Horse Sucking Louse Horse Biting Louse

16 Lice Damage Blood sucking can cause anemia
Irritation and discomfort to the animal Can cause decrease in appetite which leads to decreased weight gain Can cause death if not taken care of.

17 Lice Symptoms Rough hair coats Rubbing and Scratching Irritated animal

18 Blowfly (screwworm) Hosts: All livestock Blowfly: the adult stage
Screwworm: larval stage Life Cycle Blowfly lays eggs around and on wounds Eggs hatch into larvae or maggots (which feed on living flesh) Larvae drop to ground & burrow in soil & pupate Flies emerge after pupal stage

19 Blowfly (Screwworm) Damage Symptoms Causes weight loss
Permanent injury Death Symptoms Unpleasant odor from wound Enlargement of wound Seepage of blood from the wound

20 Cattle Grub (Heel Fly) Host: Mainly cattle, but they have been found on other species of livestock Emerge in late winter, spring, or summer Mainly a nuisance to cattle

21 Cattle Grub (Heel Fly) Life Cycle Adult fly lays eggs on hairs of legs
Eggs hatch into larvae which penetrate into the hosts body Migrate until they reach the back Grubs cut breathing holes & feed on fleshy skin Reach maturity & burrow through the hide and drop to the ground Grub goes into the ground and pupates Fly emerges

22 Cattle Grub (Heel Fly) Damage Symptoms
Can cause economic loss from hide damage and decreased milk production. Decreased amount of feeding time Symptoms Cattle run from the flies Visible swelling of the grubs on the back of the animals

23 Horn Fly Host: Mainly cattle, but will attack other species.
Mainly a nuisance Blood sucking species Life Cycle Female lays eggs in manure Hatch into larvae that mature and pupate Young flies emerge and become adults quickly

24 Horn Fly Damage Symptoms
Bites and sucks blood from the back, neck, head, and belly of the host Can result in transmission of disease Annoys the animal causing weight loss Symptoms Can be easily seen on the animals They can cover an animal in the spring and summer

25 Other Flies Hosts: All species of livestock Other flies include
Horsefly Stable Fly Housefly These flies bite and suck blood from the animals Mainly a nuisance to animals

26 Other Flies Life Cycle Adult females lay eggs in manure, debris, and other dead decaying organic matter Eggs hatch into larvae Larvae mature and pupate Flies emerge from pupae in about a week

27 Other Flies Damage Symptoms
Irritation from flies can cause loss of appetite and result in weight loss Biting and sucking can cause transmission of diseases Symptoms Easily seen Irritated animals

28 Horse Bots Hosts: Horses only Closely related to the heel fly

29 Horse Bot Life Cycle Adult fly emerges from pupae in feces
Females lay about 500 eggs on hairs of horses legs, stomach, neck, and chin. Horse rubs or bites areas infected which stimulates hatching Larvae enter mouth & migrate to the stomach Larvae attach to stomach wall & mature Mature larvae pass out of animal into feces

30 Horse Bot Damage Symptoms Can cause anemia
Reduce digestion when bots infest the horses stomach Causes irritation to the horse Fly is easily seen Loss of weight Sometimes scours Irritated animal

31 Quiz Define Host What is an external parasite
List three external parasites we discussed today. When you are finished please turn in your quiz.

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