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Unit 13: General Animal Diseases. Blackleg Acute, highly contagious, febrile, non-contagious Affects cattle & sheep Most common in Midwestern, Southern,

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 13: General Animal Diseases. Blackleg Acute, highly contagious, febrile, non-contagious Affects cattle & sheep Most common in Midwestern, Southern,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 13: General Animal Diseases

2 Blackleg Acute, highly contagious, febrile, non-contagious Affects cattle & sheep Most common in Midwestern, Southern, and Western U.S. (where cattle are on grass) Affects all ages Most common from 4 mos to 2 yrs

3 Unit 13: General Animal Diseases Cause Caused by anaerobic bacteria Clostridium Ingestion of spores from contaminated pastures Spores enter blood system from digestive tract and colonize in muscle tissues Clinical Signs May die suddenly without symptoms  Death usually w/in hrs Sudden, high fever Labored breathing, lameness

4 Unit 13: General Animal Diseases Swelling in heavily muscled areas  Neck  Loin  Legs  First hot and painful  Become cold, painless, and filled w/ gas  Pressure to skin results in crackling sound Carcasses bloat & decompose quickly Very infectious in sheep  Ultra-high temperature  Recoveries are rare

5 Unit 13: General Animal Diseases Prevention Calves  Vaccinate twice at 2 wk intervals  Between 2 & 6 mos of age  Revaccination may be warranted in high risk areas each year Sheep  In high risk areas: vaccinate every 2-4 wks prior to shearing, castrating, docking

6 Unit 13: General Animal Diseases Do not open carcasses of suspected blackleg deaths  Burn where they die, if possible Treatment If caught early, high doses of penicillin Best control is w/ vaccination

7 Unit 13: General Animal Diseases Swine Erysipelas Infectious disease affecting swine of all ages Most common in young & growing pigs Occurs in a variety of forms Can result in large death losses Most economic losses caused by chronic form General unthriftiness and poor performance Can affect other animals & humans May cause economic losses in turkeys & sheep

8 Unit 13: General Animal Diseases Cause Bacterial infection Highly resistant to natural means of eradication Lives and reproduces in alkaline soils  Can survive in dead carcasses > 1yr Spreads by direct contact Often introduced to a herd through breeding stock or feeder purchases

9 Unit 13: General Animal Diseases Clinical signs Three forms:  Acute  Sudden death of 1 or more animals  Very high fever  Appetite affects vary  Vomitting  Skin blotchiness  Severe joint pain

10 Unit 13: General Animal Diseases  Subacute  Less severe symptomology  Some skin lesions  Course of the disease is much shorter  Chronic form  Causes most dramatic physical changes  Lose portions of their skin, tail, ears, feet  Dark, firm skin lesions leaving ugly scars  Stiff, swollen, painful joints  Lameness in one or more legs  Bacteria localizes in joints and/or heart valves

11 Unit 13: General Animal Diseases Prevention Sound herd health management  Biosecurity  Vaccination program  Killed or MLV Revaccinate breeding stock twice/yr Treatment Acute form: treat w/ most any form of antibiotic (penicillin, oxytetracycline, tylosin, chlorotet.) No practical treatment for chronic form

12 Unit 13: General Animal Diseases Johne’s Disease Aka paratuberculosis Primarily occurs in ruminants Increasing importance in the U.S. Emerging as a significant economic disease Herds w/ 10% infection rate – lose ~$230/cow/yr  From decreased production of subclinical cows

13 Unit 13: General Animal Diseases Cause Bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium paratuberculosis Ingestion of organism in contaminated milk, feed, water Nursing calves born to infected mothers have high risk for infection Organism is shed in extremely high numbers from infected animals before clinical symptoms  Fecal contamination considered to be #1 mode of infection

14 Unit 13: General Animal Diseases Animals up to 6 mos most susceptible for infection Bacteria enters the S.I. tissue Diagnosis through ELISA blood test, or fecal culture  Can easily have false negative tests due to low shedding numbers and low antibody levels early in life Clinical Signs Persistent diarrhea, unresponsive to treatment Maintain good appetite Rapid weight loss, w/ no fever

15 Unit 13: General Animal Diseases Disease often doesn’t become evident until 3-5 yrs of age  Only subtle symptoms may be apparent earliers Prevention Don’t permit feeding utensils to come in contact w/ manure  Tractors, skid loaders, etc. Separate calves from their mother ASAP Feed only colostrum from negative test cows  Don’t use pooled colostrum

16 Unit 13: General Animal Diseases Feed milk replacer or used a pasteurizer instead of waste milk House calves away from cow manure areas to prevent cross-contamination Treatment No cure available Some drug therapies can prolong life and improve body condition, but doesn’t eradicate disease

17 Unit 13: General Animal Diseases Dangers of Johne’s Questions of infections passing to humans  How could it be transmitted? What is the related human disease? What effect could this have on the dairy industry?


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