Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Physical and Chemical Defenses  Skin- Both a physical and chemical barrier. Sweat contains acids that kill many bacteria. Skin cells shed constantly.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Physical and Chemical Defenses  Skin- Both a physical and chemical barrier. Sweat contains acids that kill many bacteria. Skin cells shed constantly."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 Physical and Chemical Defenses  Skin- Both a physical and chemical barrier. Sweat contains acids that kill many bacteria. Skin cells shed constantly and pathogens on those skin cells shed with them.  Mucous Membranes- Openings such as mouth, eyes, and nose. Secrete liquid called mucus, which trap pathogens and washes them away. Also contains chemicals that attack pathogens.

3  Cilia- Tiny hair like projections. Line mucous membranes. Ex. Breathing in dust.  Saliva and tears- Contain chemicals and also wash away pathogens  Digestive system- Chemicals such as acid, the motions of the digestive system, and excretion all help get rid of pathogens

4 Inflammation  This is your bodies general response to injuries  Phagocytes- White blood cells that leak out of cells when injury occurs  Phagocytes engulf and destroy pathogens while the area is inflamed  Phagocytes also give off substances that promote healing.

5 The Immune System  White blood cells called Lymphocytes carry out most of the immune system’s functions  Immunity is when the body is already equipped to destroy pathogens that enter the body

6 Lymphocytes  Killer T cells- Destroy pathogen  Helper T cells- Produce chemicals that stimulate other T cells and B cells to fight off infection  Suppressor T cells- turn off other immune system cells when an infection has been brought under control

7  B cells produce antibodies.  Antibodies are proteins that attach to the surface of pathogens or to the toxins produced by pathogens.

8 The Lymphatic System  A network of vessels that collect fluid from your tissues and return it to the blood stream. This fluid is called lymph fluid.  Have hundreds of small stations called lymph nodes  Lymph nodes act as a sort of filter  Phagocytes and lymphocytes are contained in the lymph node and attack pathogens

9 Passive and Active Immunity  Passive: Immunity acquired by receiving antibodies from a source other then one’s own immune system. This is temporary and not life long.  Ex. Babies receive antibodies from the mother’s milk  Active: Results from having a disease or receiving a vaccine.

10 Common Infectious Diseases Bacterial Diseases I. Strep Throat: Found usually in the nose and throat. Symptoms: Swollen lymph nodes, sore throat, head ache, and fever. Diagnosed by swabbing the throat II. Lyme Disease: contracted when bitten by a tick. Symptoms: red rash at bite site, fevers, chills and body aches.

11 III. Bacterial Meningitis: Infection of the spinal cord and the fluid that surrounds the brain. Symptoms: high fever, headache, vomiting, and stiff neck. IV. Tuberculosis (TB): Transmitted when droplets of an infected persons cough or sneeze are inhaled. Symptoms: Fatigue, mild fever, and a constant cough. The disease may not show up for years after contraction.

12 Treating Bacterial Infections  Antibiotics are used to treat bacterial infections  Antibiotic resistance can happen when a person does not take all of their prescribed medicine.

13 Viral Infections  Common cold: Symptoms include sneezing, sore throat, coughing, chest congestion, head aches and muscle aches. Most last three to seven days. Colds spread when a person touches a contaminated object or inhales droplets from a sneeze or a cough.  Influenza: Infection of the upper respiratory system. Symptoms: High fever, sore throat, headache, and a cough. Spread same as cold.

14  Pneumonia: People who have heart disease or are elderly may experience their flu turn into pneumonia.  Hepatitis: Type A: Transmitted through human wastes or contaminated water. Type B: More severe then type A. Transmitted through blood or sexual contact. Type C: Transmitted through blood or sexual contact. Type C is the number one reason for liver transplants in the U.S

15 Treatment of Viral Infections  In most cases there are no particular medicine that can cure a viral infection.  Best treatments are : rest, a well-balanced diet, and plenty of fluids.  There are also many medicines that treat viral symptoms  These medicines make a person feel better but do not rid the body of the virus.

16 When Should I See a Doctor?  Extremely sore throat, earache, vomiting, diarrhea, or temperature of 101 F that lasts for more then two days  Mucus from your nose or throat is thick and yellow  Difficulty breathing, or severe pain anywhere  A cut or scrape that does not heal as it should  An illness that lasts longer then usual

17 Prevention  Wash Hands  Do not share items that transfer pathogens (towels, eating utensils, cups or hair brushes)  Cook and store food properly  Avoid close contact with infected individuals  Stay home when not feeling well  Learn to manage stress in healthful ways  Sleep at least 8 hours a night  Avoid unhealthful substances. Ex: Drugs


Download ppt "Physical and Chemical Defenses  Skin- Both a physical and chemical barrier. Sweat contains acids that kill many bacteria. Skin cells shed constantly."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google