Presentation on theme: "Internal Parasites of Livestock. Internal Parasites: live within the internal organs of livestock ◦ They are not visible ◦ Effects on the host may be."— Presentation transcript:
Internal Parasites of Livestock
Internal Parasites: live within the internal organs of livestock ◦ They are not visible ◦ Effects on the host may be visible Divided into three groups ◦ Roundworms ◦ Tapeworms ◦ Flukes
RoundwormsRoundworms Most important from economic standpoint Many different types Affect almost every type of livestock
Stomach Worms (Roundworm) Host: Every species of livestock Life Cycle: ◦ Adults live in stomach wall. ◦ Eggs pass from host and hatch into larvae ◦ Larvae are eaten by animal and travel to stomach where they mature.
Stomach Worms (Roundworm) Damage: ◦ Penetrate stomach lining ◦ Reduce digestion of nutrients ◦ Young undernourished animals are hit the hardest Symptoms ◦ Anemia- paleness of gums and white of eyes ◦ Dull hair coat ◦ Scours ◦ Severe infestation can cause weight loss and death
Strongyles (Roundworm) Host: All species of livestock ◦ Cattle & horse can build up immunity by ages 4 or 5 Life Cycle: ◦ Adult is attached to lining of intestines ◦ Eggs pass from host ◦ Larvae attach to grass and are eaten by animal ◦ Pass through stomach and attach to intestinal wall
Strongyles (Roundworm) Damage: ◦ Most detrimental ◦ Anemia ◦ Scar tissue reduces digestion of nutrients ◦ Major cause of Colic in horses ◦ Poor feed conversion Symptoms ◦ Anemia ◦ Weight Loss ◦ Scouring ◦ Loss of appetite ◦ Prostration ◦ Rough hair coat
Ascarids (Roundworm) Largest of round worms ◦ Can reach 8 to 15 inches in length Mainly affects younger animals Host: primarily cattle, sheep, hogs, and horses
Ascarids (Roundworm) Life Cycle: ◦ Eggs passed in feces contaminate pastures ◦ Animals ingest ◦ Larvae burrow into wall of intestine ◦ Migrate to liver, heart, and lungs ◦ Animal coughs up eggs and are swallowed ◦ Reach intestines a 2nd time and develop into adult stage
Ascarids (Roundworms) Damage: ◦ Develop pneumonia ◦ Weight loss ◦ Lung damage ◦ Colic in horses Symptoms ◦ Weight loss ◦ Dull hair coat ◦ Colic
Pinworms (Roundworms) Small and found in colon or rectum of horses Host: mainly horses, but can be found in other livestock species.
Pinworms (Roundworms) Life cycle: ◦ Adult females lay eggs around the anus of horse ◦ Eggs drop off and contaminate pastures, stables, watering and feeding area ◦ Eggs are ingested by animal ◦ Pass to colon and rectum and mature
Pinworms (Roundworms) Damage: ◦ Minor damage is caused ◦ Cause irritation around the tail Symptoms: ◦ Tail rubbing ◦ White scales deposits are visible around anus
Habronema (Roundworm) Affects host in two stages Host: Horse is major host ◦ House fly is intermediate host
Habronema (Roundworm) Life Cycle: ◦ Adult stage is found in stomach ◦ Larvae is passed which is ingested by house fly ◦ House fly deposits eggs on lips of horse ◦ Horse swallows eggs and they mature in horses stomach
Habronema (Roundworm) Damage: ◦ Summer sores can form if larvae are deposited in open wounds ◦ Disfigure horses ◦ Hard to heal Symptoms: ◦ Presence of summer sores ◦ Excessive tearing and running of eyes ◦ Open sores
Lungworms (Roundworms) Affect circulatory system & lungs Host: All species of livestock
Lungworms (Roundworms) Life Cycle: ◦ Eggs laid in lungs of animals ◦ Coughed up & swallowed ◦ Eggs hatch in stomach and larvae are passed ◦ Develop in moist earth or water ◦ Ingested by animal ◦ Burrow into lymph nodes and are carried to lungs where they mature
Lungworms (Roundworms) Damage: ◦ Mechanical blockage of lungs ◦ Collapse of infected area ◦ Blockage of windpipe and bronchea Symptoms: ◦ Coughing ◦ Fast or forceful breathing ◦ Fever ◦ Animal reluctant to move ◦ Goes off of feed and water
TapewormsTapeworms Less important than roundworms 3 species of tapeworms ◦ Broad tapeworm ◦ Beef tapeworm ◦ Pork tapeworm
Broad Tapeworm Host: All classes of livestock and also in man Reach up to 10 feet in length Life Cycle: ◦ Adult lives in small intestine ◦ Segments containing eggs break off and pass out of animal ◦ Eggs are eaten by oribated mite ◦ Mites are eaten by host and eggs hatch in small intestine
Broad Tapeworm Damage: ◦ No physical damage ◦ Tapeworm is in competition with animal for food. Symptoms ◦ Weight loss ◦ Diarrhea ◦ emaciation
Beef and Pork Tapeworm Both are similar and almost identical Host: ◦ Beef tapeworm- cattle and man ◦ Pork tapeworm- swine and man ◦ Man is necessary intermediate host Reach 5 feet in length
Beef and Pork Tapeworm Life Cycle: ◦ Adult lives only in man ◦ Eggs contaminate the feed of animal through human contact ◦ Animal ingests feed and eggs pass to intestinal wall ◦ Larvae lodge in some muscle causing a cyst ◦ Passed back to man when infected meat is eaten
Beef and Pork Tapeworm Damage: ◦ Little economic damage to cattle ◦ Causes mealy beef Symptoms: ◦ No visible symptoms except when animal is slaughtered
FlukesFlukes Several species Liver Fluke is the most important
Liver Fluke Host: ◦ Parasite of cattle, sheep, goats, and man ◦ Damaging to young animals
Liver Fluke Life Cycle: ◦ Adult lives in bile ducts ◦ Eggs passed into intestines and passed out ◦ Eggs must be in water to hatch ◦ Larvae hatch and seek a snail ◦ Larvae develops on snail and then attaches to a plant ◦ Animals ingest infected plant ◦ Flukes pass to intestines and burrow through abdominal cavity to the lungs.
Liver Flukes Damage: ◦ Irritation and thickening of bile duct ◦ Fibrosis of the liver Symptoms: ◦ Anemia ◦ Weight loss ◦ Death if not treated.
TomorrowTomorrow We will go over control methods of internal parasites.