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Communicable Diseases In this lesson, you will Learn About… The differences between a cold and the flu. Some common communicable diseases. Which communicable.

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Presentation on theme: "Communicable Diseases In this lesson, you will Learn About… The differences between a cold and the flu. Some common communicable diseases. Which communicable."— Presentation transcript:

1 Communicable Diseases In this lesson, you will Learn About… The differences between a cold and the flu. Some common communicable diseases. Which communicable diseases can be prevented by vaccination.

2 Communicable Diseases The Vocabulary terms in this lesson are: Influenza. Influenza Contagious period. Contagious period Mononucleosis. Mononucleosis Hepatitis. Hepatitis Tuberculosis. Tuberculosis Pneumonia. Pneumonia Strep throat. Strep throat

3 Facts About the Common Cold A cold is one of the most frequently occurring communicable diseases. Colds are common because cold pathogens can spread in several ways, by both direct and indirect contact. Also, hundreds of different viruses can cause colds. This is why no one has been able to develop a cold vaccine.

4 Facts About the Flu Some of the symptoms of a cold and the flu are the same. However, different viruses cause colds and the flu, or influenza.influenza The flu begins more suddenly than a cold, and it lasts longer. As with a cold, you can catch the flu through direct and indirect contact.

5 Chicken Pox, Measles, and Mumps Chicken pox, measles, and mumps are diseases with well-defined contagious periods. The contagious period is the length of time that a particular disease can be spread from person to person.

6 Chicken Pox, Measles, and Mumps (cont’d.) Chicken pox can be passed to others from two days before the rash appears until about six days after. Symptoms of chicken pox include an itchy rash, fever, headache, and body aches. The red rash begins as small red bumps that develop into blisters.

7 Chicken Pox, Measles, and Mumps (cont’d.) Measles can be passed to others from several days before the rash appears until five days after. Symptoms of measles include a rash accompanied by fever, runny nose, and coughing.

8 Chicken Pox, Measles, and Mumps (cont’d.) Mumps can be passed to others around the time when the symptoms appear, but it may be passed on from as long as seven days before the symptoms appear until nine days after. Symptoms of mumps include a fever, headache, and swollen salivary glands.

9 Other Communicable Diseases MononucleosisMononucleosis – Symptoms include fatigue, loss of appetite, fever, headache, and sore throat. The disease is caused by a virus and is most common in teens and young adults. It spreads through kissing and by sharing drinking glasses or eating utensils. Treatment for mononucleosis includes rest and pain relievers.

10 Other Communicable Diseases (cont’d.) HepatitisHepatitis – Symptoms include weakness, nausea, fever, headache, sore throat, and loss of appetite. The three most common types of hepatitis are hepatitis A, B, and C. Each is caused by a different virus.

11 Other Communicable Diseases (cont’d.) Hepatitis A may be contracted from contaminated food or water. Hepatitis B and C may be contracted from: Contact with the blood or other body fluids of an infected person. This can occur when drug users share needles. Sexual contact. Treatment for hepatitis involves rest and a healthful diet.

12 Other Communicable Diseases (cont’d.) TuberculosisTuberculosis (TB) – Symptoms include cough, fatigue, night sweats, fever, and weight loss. TB is spread when infected people cough or sneeze droplets into the air. TB can be treated with antibiotics. A TB vaccine is also available.

13 Other Communicable Diseases (cont’d.) PneumoniaPneumonia – Symptoms include fever, cough, weakness, chills, and difficulty breathing. Pneumonia may be caused by viruses or bacteria. People may catch pneumonia by inhaling airborne pathogens or by having direct contact with an infected person.

14 Other Communicable Diseases (cont’d.) Treatment of pneumonia depends on the type of pneumonia and how serious the case is. Bacterial pneumonia can be treated with antibiotics. Regardless of the type of pneumonia, rest and plenty of fluids are recommended.

15 Other Communicable Diseases (cont’d.) Strep throatStrep throat – Symptoms include a red and painful throat, fever, and swollen and tender lymph nodes in the neck. Headache, nausea, and vomiting may also occur. Strep throat is usually spread through direct contact or when infected people breathe or cough droplets into the air.

16 Other Communicable Diseases (cont’d.) Strep throat can be treated with antibiotics. See a doctor if you think you have strep throat or if you suddenly develop a sore throat accompanied by a fever. If left untreated, strep throat can lead to serious complications such as rheumatic fever, a condition that can damage the heart.

17 Vaccination Schedules Some communicable diseases used to be much more common than they are now. The immunization of infants and children is making such diseases increasingly rare.

18 Vaccination Schedules (cont’d.) Vaccinations are often given at wellness exams. Vaccine: Diseases It Protects Against Typical Vaccination Schedule Hep B: hepatitis BSeries of three injections: birth – 2 months, 1 – 4 months, and 6 – 18 months Source: Table based on immunization schedule recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the American Academy of Family Physicians

19 Vaccination Schedules (cont’d.) Vaccine: Diseases It Protects Against Typical Vaccination Schedule DTaP: diphtheria, tetanus (lockjaw), and pertussis (whooping cough) Series of five injections: 2 months, 4 months, 6 months, 15–18 months, and 4–6 years (before starting school); Td (tetanus and diphtheria toxoid) booster given at 11–12 years and every 10 years thereafter Source: Table based on immunization schedule recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the American Academy of Family Physicians

20 Vaccination Schedules (cont’d.) Vaccine: Diseases It Protects Against Typical Vaccination Schedule Hib: Haemophilus influenzae type b bacteria Series of three injections: 2 months, 4 months, and 6 months. Booster dose given at 12–15 months IPV: polioFour doses: 2 months, 4 months, 6–18 months, and 4–6 years Source: Table based on immunization schedule recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the American Academy of Family Physicians

21 Vaccination Schedules (cont’d.) Vaccine: Diseases It Protects Against Typical Vaccination Schedule PCV: pneumococcal infections (such as bacterial meningitis) Series of four injections: 2 months, 4 months, 6 months, and 12–15 months MMR: measles, mumps, and rubella (German measles) Two doses: 12–15 months and 4–6 years. Schedule should be completed by age 11– 12 Source: Table based on immunization schedule recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the American Academy of Family Physicians

22 Vaccination Schedules (cont’d.) Vaccine: Diseases It Protects Against Typical Vaccination Schedule Varicella: chicken poxOne dose: 12–18 months Hep A: hepatitis ATwo doses, given at least 6 months apart: 2–18 years. Used only in high-risk areas or for high-risk groups Source: Table based on immunization schedule recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the American Academy of Family Physicians

23 Reviewing Terms and Facts 1.What is mononucleosis? How is it spread? Mononucleosis is a disease characterized by swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck and throat. It spreads through kissing and by sharing drinking glasses or eating utensils.

24 Reviewing Terms and Facts 2.What are the symptoms of strep throat? How is it treated? Symptoms of strep throat include a red and painful throat, fever, and swollen and tender lymph nodes in the neck. Headache, nausea, and vomiting may also occur. It can be treated with antibiotics.

25 Thinking Critically 3.Why would it be important to know a disease’s contagious period? It is important for a person to know a disease’s contagious period so that the person can avoid contact with others during that time, if he or she has the disease, or avoid others who are infected.

26 Vocabulary Review Influenza is a communicable disease characterized by fever, chills, fatigue, headache, muscle aches, and respiratory symptoms.

27 Vocabulary Review A contagious period is the length of time that a particular disease can be spread from person to person.

28 Vocabulary Review Mononucleosis is a disease characterized by swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck and throat.

29 Vocabulary Review Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver characterized by yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes.

30 Vocabulary Review Tuberculosis is a bacterial disease that usually affects the lungs.

31 Vocabulary Review Pneumonia is a serious inflammation or infection of the lungs.

32 Vocabulary Review Strep throat is a sore throat caused by streptococcal bacteria.


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