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. Analyze the anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system. Specific Objectives: Describe the structure of the respiratory system. Analyze the function.

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Presentation on theme: ". Analyze the anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system. Specific Objectives: Describe the structure of the respiratory system. Analyze the function."— Presentation transcript:

1 . Analyze the anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system. Specific Objectives: Describe the structure of the respiratory system. Analyze the function of the respiratory system. Identify characteristics and treatment of common respiratory disorders.

2 Bell…. Read pages from the text.Read pages from the text. List the function of the respiratory system and 9 structuresList the function of the respiratory system and 9 structures

3 Function Responsible for taking in oxygen, a gas needed by all body cells. For removal of carbon dioxide, a gas that is a metabolic waste product produced by those cells.Responsible for taking in oxygen, a gas needed by all body cells. For removal of carbon dioxide, a gas that is a metabolic waste product produced by those cells. Responsible for the production of soundResponsible for the production of sound

4 Includes the nasal cavity, sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, lungs, and pleura.Includes the nasal cavity, sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, lungs, and pleura.

5 NASAL SEPTUM = divides nasal cavities into R and L sides Turbinates are bones that protrude into the nasal cavity – they increase surface area for filtering dust and dirt particles by the mucous membrane. CILIA – the hairs in your nose, trap larger dirt particles

6 – cavities in the skull, ducts connect them to the nasal cavity, lined with mucous membrane to warm and moisten the air.– cavities in the skull, ducts connect them to the nasal cavity, lined with mucous membrane to warm and moisten the air. FrontalFrontal MaxillaryMaxillary EthmoidEthmoid SphenoidSphenoid Sinuses give resonance to the voice.Sinuses give resonance to the voice. Let’s label….(next slide)Let’s label….(next slide)

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8 Bell What are the functions?What are the functions? Nasal septumNasal septum TurbinatesTurbinates CiliaCilia SinusesSinuses

9 The throat Common passageway for air and food 5” long When food is swallowed, the EPIGLOTTIS closes over the opening to the larynx, preventing food from entering the lungs.

10 Voice boxVoice box Triangular chamber below pharynxTriangular chamber below pharynx Within the larynx are vocal cords (GLOTTIS)Within the larynx are vocal cords (GLOTTIS) Adam’s AppleAdam’s Apple ( see model)( see model)

11 Windpipe 4 ½ in. long walls are alternate bands of membrane and C-shaped rings of hyaline cartilage – to keep trachea open Lined with ciliated mucous membrane Coughing and expectoration gets rid of dust-laden mucous

12 Lower end of trachea divides into R and L bronchus As they enter lungs, subdivide into bronchial tubes and bronchioles Bronchi – similar to trachea with ciliated mucous membrane and hyaline cartilage Bronchial tubes – cartilaginous plates (instead of C-shaped rings) Bronchioles – thinner walls of smooth muscle, lined with ciliated epithelium At the end, alveolar duct and cluster of alveoli

13 Composed of a single layer of epithelial tissue Inner surfaces covered with SURFACTANT – to keep alveoli from collapsing Each alveolus surrounded by capillaries O2 and CO2 exchange takes place between the alveoli Diffusion: Scientific principle responsible for O2 and CO2 exchange. Grater concentration to lesser concentration.

14 Bellringer Complete Respiratory Structures WorksheetComplete Respiratory Structures Worksheet Do: Easy BreatherDo: Easy Breather Should have labeled Sinuses and some of CShould have labeled Sinuses and some of C

15 LABEL THE WRITE ON WIPE OFF RESPLABEL THE WRITE ON WIPE OFF RESP

16 As the Air Goes Read about the structure you’ve been given in your textbook. Write quick description on card.Read about the structure you’ve been given in your textbook. Write quick description on card. Your cards are mark with matching colors or markings. Assemble yourselves according to color/mark, makes 2 teams.Your cards are mark with matching colors or markings. Assemble yourselves according to color/mark, makes 2 teams. On a signal given by the teacher, the students arrange themselves in a line in the order that air would pass through them. On a signal given by the teacher, the students arrange themselves in a line in the order that air would pass through them. Students will need to decide what to do with the mouth and nose as air comes in both, and the right and left bronchus as air goes thorough both. Leader only, tell teacher when done.Students will need to decide what to do with the mouth and nose as air comes in both, and the right and left bronchus as air goes thorough both. Leader only, tell teacher when done.

17 Bell Get out your outline, starting with lungs…we will resume lectureGet out your outline, starting with lungs…we will resume lecture Text page 372Text page 372 Applying practice to theoryApplying practice to theory 1-A1-A

18 Fill thoracic cavity Upper part = apex Lower part = base Base fits snugly over diaphragm Lung tissue porous and spongy – it floats R lung = larger and shorter (displaced by the liver) and has 3 lobes L lung smaller (displaced by the heart) and has 2 lobes

19 Thin, moist slippery membrane that covers lungsThin, moist slippery membrane that covers lungs Double-walled sacDouble-walled sac –Visceral-covers lungs and between lobes –Parietal-lines the thoracic cavity and the upper surface of the diaphragm Space is pleural cavity – filled with pleural fluid to prevent frictionSpace is pleural cavity – filled with pleural fluid to prevent friction (transparency)(transparency)

20 Bell… Make sure you have completed “Easy Breather”Make sure you have completed “Easy Breather” Complete (with washable marker) Write on wipe off labelingComplete (with washable marker) Write on wipe off labeling Answer questions thru 4Answer questions thru 4

21 External respiration-Exchange (O2/CO2) between lungs and blood stream. Internal respiration-Exchange of (O2/CO2) between cells and blood stream. Cellular respiration-use of oxygen to produce energy, H2O, and carbon dioxide. Cellular respiration-use of oxygen to produce energy, H2O, and carbon dioxide. Production of sound (vocal cords)Production of sound (vocal cords)

22 Model Lungs When you inhale, muscles cause the chest to expand, making the lungs do the same. When this happens, air is sucked into the lungs. Make a model to demonstrate this. You will need:When you inhale, muscles cause the chest to expand, making the lungs do the same. When this happens, air is sucked into the lungs. Make a model to demonstrate this. You will need: Large clear, plastic bottleLarge clear, plastic bottle Three-way hose connectorThree-way hose connector 2 rubber bands2 rubber bands modeling claymodeling clay plastic tubeplastic tube 3 small balloons3 small balloons scissorsscissors Directions:Directions: Push the plastic tube into one opening of the hose connector. Use modeling clay, if necessary, to make an airtight seal. Fix the balloons tightly onto the other opening with rubber bands, making sure that the joints between the connector and the balloons are airtight.Push the plastic tube into one opening of the hose connector. Use modeling clay, if necessary, to make an airtight seal. Fix the balloons tightly onto the other opening with rubber bands, making sure that the joints between the connector and the balloons are airtight. Carefully cut off the bottom 1 inch from the bottle, using the scissors. Make sure theCarefully cut off the bottom 1 inch from the bottle, using the scissors. Make sure the cut edge of the bottle is smooth. Place the balloons and connector inside. Seal the plastic tube into the neck of the bottle with the modeling clay to make an airtight fit.cut edge of the bottle is smooth. Place the balloons and connector inside. Seal the plastic tube into the neck of the bottle with the modeling clay to make an airtight fit. Tie a knot in the neck of the third balloon. Then carefully cut it in half, crossways.Tie a knot in the neck of the third balloon. Then carefully cut it in half, crossways. Gently stretch the knotted part of the balloon over the lower end of the bottle, and pull it around the sides. Make the balloon as taut as you can-like a drum skin. Now hold it by its knot.Gently stretch the knotted part of the balloon over the lower end of the bottle, and pull it around the sides. Make the balloon as taut as you can-like a drum skin. Now hold it by its knot. The lower balloon represents the diaphragm, the main breathing muscle. Pull it down,The lower balloon represents the diaphragm, the main breathing muscle. Pull it down, As though you were inhaling. This lowers the air pressure in the bottle. Air from outside rushes in and makes the two balloons expand just like the real lungs in your chest.As though you were inhaling. This lowers the air pressure in the bottle. Air from outside rushes in and makes the two balloons expand just like the real lungs in your chest. Additional assignment:Additional assignment: Read pages 334 in Body Structures and Functions. In your own words, explain the process of inspiration and expiration. Write your answer on the back of this handout.Read pages 334 in Body Structures and Functions. In your own words, explain the process of inspiration and expiration. Write your answer on the back of this handout.

23 Bellringer Text page 346Text page 346 Applying practice to theoryApplying practice to theory 1-A1-A

24 The Race Is ON Your cards are marked with matching colors or markings. Assemble yourselves according to color/mark, makes 2 teams.Your cards are marked with matching colors or markings. Assemble yourselves according to color/mark, makes 2 teams. On a signal given by the teacher, the students arrange themselves in a line in the order that air would pass through them. On a signal given by the teacher, the students arrange themselves in a line in the order that air would pass through them. Students will need to decide what to do with the mouth and nose as air comes in both, and the right and left bronchus as air goes thorough both. Leader only, tell teacher when done.Students will need to decide what to do with the mouth and nose as air comes in both, and the right and left bronchus as air goes thorough both. Leader only, tell teacher when done.

25 EXPIRATION Opposite action takes placeOpposite action takes place Exhalation is a passive processExhalation is a passive process Diaphrgam move up/relaxesDiaphrgam move up/relaxesINSPIRATION Intercostals muscles lift ribs outward, sternum rises and the diaphragm contracts and moves downward – this increases the volume of the lungs and air rushes in.Intercostals muscles lift ribs outward, sternum rises and the diaphragm contracts and moves downward – this increases the volume of the lungs and air rushes in.

26 Mechanics of Breathing Breathing is due to the change in the pressure within the thoracic cavityBreathing is due to the change in the pressure within the thoracic cavity Normal pressure =negative, < atmospheric pressure, keeps lungs expandedNormal pressure =negative, < atmospheric pressure, keeps lungs expanded The trigger to breath will alter the pressure and a mechanical change will occur The trigger to breath will alter the pressure and a mechanical change will occur

27 Breathing controlled by neural and chemical factors.Breathing controlled by neural and chemical factors. Neural FactorsNeural Factors Respiratory center located in MEDULLA OBLONGATARespiratory center located in MEDULLA OBLONGATA  on CO2 or  O2 in the blood will trigger respiratory center (pg 336)  on CO2 or  O2 in the blood will trigger respiratory center (pg 336) –A) PHRENIC NERVE – stimulates the diaphragm and intercostals muscles –B) VAGUS NERVE impulses from nose larynx, lungs, skin and abdominal organs (Hering-Breuer –prevents overstretching)(Hering-Breuer –prevents overstretching) Chemical FactorsChemical Factors Depends on the levels of CO2 in the blood (respiratory center in brain)Depends on the levels of CO2 in the blood (respiratory center in brain) Chemoreceptors in aorta and carotid arteries sensitive to the amount of blood O2Chemoreceptors in aorta and carotid arteries sensitive to the amount of blood O2 Sensory ImpulsesSensory Impulses –Nerve pathways carry sensory impulses from the nose, larynx, lungs, skin and abdominal organs via the vagus nerve in the medulla.

28 Bell Fix question number 5 on Breathing Control WorksheetFix question number 5 on Breathing Control Worksheet Sensory ImpulsesSensory Impulses –“Nerve pathways carry sensory impulses from the nose, larynx, lungs, skin and abdominal organs via the vagus nerve in the medulla.” –If you are on the track team…bring the completed –Breathing Control Worksheet now

29 Bell Define External RespirationsDefine External Respirations Define Internal RespirationsDefine Internal Respirations

30 Respiratory Movements 1 inspiration + 1 expiration = 1 respiration Normal adult = respirations per minute Increases with exercise, body temperature, certain diseases. Age - newborn = 40-60/min Sleep = respirations  Emotion can  or  rate

31 Bell…. Complete 2nd ½ of Breathing control worksheetComplete 2nd ½ of Breathing control worksheet Answer all 10 questions (using notes and text…not each other) Resp. Structure worksheetAnswer all 10 questions (using notes and text…not each other) Resp. Structure worksheet

32 Coughing – deep breath followed by forceful expulsion of air – to clear lower respiratory tract. Hiccups – spasm of the diaphragm and spasmotic closure of the glottis – irritation to diaphragm or phrenic nerve Sneezing – air forced through nose to clear respiratory tract Yawning – deep prolonged breath that fills the lungs, increases oxygen within the blood

33 Is yawning contagious? According to research performed at New York State University, between 40 and 60 percent of the population seems to find yawning contagious.According to research performed at New York State University, between 40 and 60 percent of the population seems to find yawning contagious. Researchers from the State University of New YorkResearchers from the State University of New YorkState University of New YorkState University of New York in Albany tested people to find out why some are susceptible to contagious yawning and deduced that self-aware or empathetic people are more likely to catch yawns.in Albany tested people to find out why some are susceptible to contagious yawning and deduced that self-aware or empathetic people are more likely to catch yawns. People even yawn when watching animals, but not the other way!.People even yawn when watching animals, but not the other way!.

34 Control of Breathing Breathing controlled by neural and chemical factors. Control of Breathing Breathing controlled by neural and chemical factors. Neural FactorsNeural Factors § Respiratory center located in MEDULLA OBLONGATA§ Respiratory center located in MEDULLA OBLONGATA §  on CO2 or  O2 in the blood will trigger respiratory center§  on CO2 or  O2 in the blood will trigger respiratory center Two pathways: Two pathways: 1) PHRENIC NERVE – stimulates the diaphragm and intercostal muscles1) PHRENIC NERVE – stimulates the diaphragm and intercostal muscles 2) VEGUS NERVE-Sensory impulses-from nose, larynx,skin lung and abd.2) VEGUS NERVE-Sensory impulses-from nose, larynx,skin lung and abd. Hering-Breuer Reflex-not over- extend the lungs.(Vegus nerve too) Hering-Breuer Reflex-not over- extend the lungs.(Vegus nerve too) Chemical Factors  Depends on the levels of CO 2 in the blood (respiratory center in brain)  Chemoreceptors in aorta and carotid arteries sensitive to the amount of blood O 2 (Morphine)

35 Bell… Organ Donation/would you or would you not?Organ Donation/would you or would you not? –And the Essay results are in! –Of the 22 submitted 18 would donate for others to use –Of 22 submitted 4 would donate for science –Have in front of you the disease fact chart and your outline

36 Breath In Breath Out Cut the Boy out…leave him in the ‘frame’Cut the Boy out…leave him in the ‘frame’ Cut the slitsCut the slits –top of head –a and b –Diaphragm –Cut out ‘pull’ strip –Cut out A and B ribs –Label…(L) and ® lung, pharynx, trachea, alveoli, intercostal muscles, and diaphragm

37 Vital Lung Capacity Total amount of air insp. And exp reserveTotal amount of air insp. And exp reserve (page 364)(page 364)

38 COMMON COLD Contagious viral respiratory infection Indirect causes - chilling, fatigue, lack of proper food, and not enough sleep Rx – stay in bed, drink warm liquids and fruit juice, good nutrition Also called an Upper Respiratory Infection (URI) Handwashing – best preventative measure LARYNGITIS Inflammation of larynx or voice box Often secondary to other respiratory infections Symptoms – sore throat, hoarseness or loss of voice, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing)

39 Employability Skills  Find the person in this class with the same disorder on the card. Do not trade/switch=0. Assign the following roles: respiratory therapist or doctor and patient, or family member, etc. MUST HAVE EQUAL PARTICIPATION! The patient is diagnosed with a respiratory disorder (describe their symptoms) and the therapist must explain the disease and treatment to the patient and the family.  Find the person in this class with the same disorder on the card. Do not trade/switch=0. Assign the following roles: respiratory therapist or doctor and patient, or family member, etc. MUST HAVE EQUAL PARTICIPATION! The patient is diagnosed with a respiratory disorder (describe their symptoms) and the therapist must explain the disease and treatment to the patient and the family..***You have 10 minutes to research and prepare your skits. You can use your notes during skit!***.***You have 10 minutes to research and prepare your skits. You can use your notes during skit!***

40 Diseases of Respiratory System SINUSITISSINUSITIS Infection of mucous membrane that lines sinus cavitiesInfection of mucous membrane that lines sinus cavities Caused by bacteria or virusCaused by bacteria or virus Symptoms – headache or pressure, thick nasal discharge, loss of voice resonanceSymptoms – headache or pressure, thick nasal discharge, loss of voice resonance Rx – symptomatic, surgery for chronic sinusitisRx – symptomatic, surgery for chronic sinusitis PHARYNGITIS – red, inflamed throatPHARYNGITIS – red, inflamed throat

41 Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the trachea and bronchial tubes, producing excessive mucousInflammation of the mucous membrane of the trachea and bronchial tubes, producing excessive mucous May be acute or chronicMay be acute or chronic Acute bronchitis characterized by cough,Acute bronchitis characterized by cough, fever, substernal pain and RALES (raspy sound) fever, substernal pain and RALES (raspy sound) Chronic bronchitis – middle or old age, cigarette smoking most common causeChronic bronchitis – middle or old age, cigarette smoking most common cause

42 Viral infection causing inflammation of the mucous membraneViral infection causing inflammation of the mucous membrane Fever, mucopurulent discharge, muscular pain, extreme exhaustionFever, mucopurulent discharge, muscular pain, extreme exhaustion Complications – pneumonia, neuritis, otitis media and pleurisyComplications – pneumonia, neuritis, otitis media and pleurisy Rx – treat the symptomsRx – treat the symptoms

43 Infection of the lungInfection of the lung Caused by bacteria or virusCaused by bacteria or virus Alveoli fill with exudates (thick fluid)Alveoli fill with exudates (thick fluid) Symptoms – chest pain, fever, chills, dyspneaSymptoms – chest pain, fever, chills, dyspnea Rx – O2 and antibioticsRx – O2 and antibiotics

44 Infectious bacterial lung diseaseInfectious bacterial lung disease Tubercles (lesions) form in the lungsTubercles (lesions) form in the lungs Symptoms: cough, low grade fever in the afternoon, weight loss, night sweatsSymptoms: cough, low grade fever in the afternoon, weight loss, night sweats Diagnosis – TB skin testDiagnosis – TB skin test If skin test positive – follow up with chest x-ray and sputum sampleIf skin test positive – follow up with chest x-ray and sputum sample RX – antibioticRX – antibiotic

45 Inflammatory airway obstructionInflammatory airway obstruction Caused by allergen or psychological stressCaused by allergen or psychological stress 5% of Americans have asthma5% of Americans have asthma Symptoms: difficulty exhaling, dyspnea, wheezing, tightness in chestSymptoms: difficulty exhaling, dyspnea, wheezing, tightness in chest Rx: anti-inflammatory drugs, inhaled bronchodilatorRx: anti-inflammatory drugs, inhaled bronchodilator

46 Alveoli become over-dilated, lose their elasticity, can’t rebound, may eventually ruptureAlveoli become over-dilated, lose their elasticity, can’t rebound, may eventually rupture Air becomes trapped, can’t exhale – forced exhalation requiredAir becomes trapped, can’t exhale – forced exhalation required Reduced exchange of O2 and CO2Reduced exchange of O2 and CO2 Dyspnea increases as disease progressesDyspnea increases as disease progresses Rx – alleviate the symptoms, decrease exposure to respiratory irritants, prevent infections, restructure activities to prevent need for O2Rx – alleviate the symptoms, decrease exposure to respiratory irritants, prevent infections, restructure activities to prevent need for O2

47 Bell Fill in all blanks on the Respiratory Disorder ChartFill in all blanks on the Respiratory Disorder Chart

48 Bell….Use NC Careers book to discover the career of Respiratory Care Practitionerto discover the career of Respiratory Care Practitioner –Describe job duties –H.S. class preparation –List at least 5 places you could work –Describe academic requirements (college) –$$$$ –List at least 5 colleges

49 Bell.. Complete P on page 224/workbook.Complete P on page 224/workbook. Review for Respiratory test/labelingReview for Respiratory test/labeling Bring (clean) write on/wipe off lungs up to the front.Bring (clean) write on/wipe off lungs up to the front. Put your packet on the front table; Make sure your name is on it!Put your packet on the front table; Make sure your name is on it! Test will start at 1:45Test will start at 1:45


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