Presentation on theme: "Respiratory System . Analyze the anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system. Specific Objectives: Describe the structure of the respiratory system."— Presentation transcript:
1Respiratory System. Analyze the anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system.Specific Objectives:Describe the structure of the respiratory system.Analyze the function of the respiratory system.Identify characteristics and treatment of common respiratory disorders.
2Bell…. Read pages 353-354 from the text. List the function of the respiratory system and 9 structures
3FunctionResponsible for taking in oxygen, a gas needed by all body cells. For removal of carbon dioxide, a gas that is a metabolic waste product produced by those cells.Responsible for the production of sound
4Respiratory SystemIncludes the nasal cavity, sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, lungs, and pleura.
5NASAL CAVITY NASAL SEPTUM = divides nasal cavities into R and L sides Turbinates are bones that protrude into the nasal cavity – they increase surface area for filtering dust and dirt particles by the mucous membrane.CILIA – the hairs in your nose, trap larger dirt particles
6SINUSES– cavities in the skull, ducts connect them to the nasal cavity, lined with mucous membrane to warm and moisten the air.FrontalMaxillaryEthmoidSphenoidSinuses give resonance to the voice.Let’s label….(next slide)
8BellWhat are the functions?Nasal septumTurbinatesCiliaSinuses
9PHARYNX The throat Common passageway for air and food 5” long When food is swallowed, the EPIGLOTTIS closes over the opening to the larynx, preventing food from entering the lungs.
10LARYNX Voice box Triangular chamber below pharynx Within the larynx are vocal cords (GLOTTIS)Adam’s Apple( see model)
11TRACHEA Windpipe 4 ½ in. long walls are alternate bands of membrane and C-shaped rings of hyaline cartilage – to keep trachea openLined with ciliated mucous membraneCoughing and expectoration gets rid of dust-laden mucous
12BRONCHI and BRONCHIOLES Lower end of trachea divides into R and L bronchusAs they enter lungs, subdivide into bronchial tubes and bronchiolesBronchi – similar to trachea with ciliated mucous membrane and hyaline cartilageBronchial tubes – cartilaginous plates (instead of C-shaped rings)Bronchioles – thinner walls of smooth muscle, lined with ciliated epitheliumAt the end, alveolar duct and cluster of alveoli
13ALVEOLI Composed of a single layer of epithelial tissue Inner surfaces covered with SURFACTANT – to keep alveoli from collapsingEach alveolus surrounded by capillariesO2 and CO2 exchange takes place between the alveoliDiffusion: Scientific principle responsible for O2 and CO2 exchange. Grater concentration to lesser concentration.
14Bellringer Complete Respiratory Structures Worksheet Do: Easy Breather Should have labeled Sinuses and some of C
16As the Air GoesRead about the structure you’ve been given in your textbook. Write quick description on card.Your cards are mark with matching colors or markings. Assemble yourselves according to color/mark, makes 2 teams.On a signal given by the teacher, the students arrange themselves in a line in the order that air would pass through them.Students will need to decide what to do with the mouth and nose as air comes in both, and the right and left bronchus as air goes thorough both. Leader only, tell teacher when done.
17Bell Get out your outline, starting with lungs…we will resume lecture Text page 372Applying practice to theory1-A
18LUNGS Fill thoracic cavity Upper part = apex Lower part = base Base fits snugly over diaphragmLung tissue porous and spongy – it floatsR lung = larger and shorter (displaced by the liver) and has 3 lobesL lung smaller (displaced by the heart) and has 2 lobes
19PLEURA Thin, moist slippery membrane that covers lungs Double-walled sacVisceral-covers lungs and between lobesParietal-lines the thoracic cavity and the upper surface of the diaphragmSpace is pleural cavity – filled with pleural fluid to prevent friction(transparency)
20Bell… Make sure you have completed “Easy Breather” Complete (with washable marker) Write on wipe off labelingAnswer questions thru 4
21Mechanics of Breathing External respiration-Exchange (O2/CO2) between lungs and blood stream.Internal respiration-Exchange of (O2/CO2) between cells and blood stream.Cellular respiration-use of oxygen to produce energy, H2O, and carbon dioxide.Production of sound (vocal cords)
22Model LungsWhen you inhale, muscles cause the chest to expand, making the lungs do the same. When this happens, air is sucked into the lungs. Make a model to demonstrate this. You will need:Large clear, plastic bottleThree-way hose connector2 rubber bandsmodeling clayplastic tube3 small balloonsscissorsDirections:Push the plastic tube into one opening of the hose connector. Use modeling clay, if necessary, to make an airtight seal. Fix the balloons tightly onto the other opening with rubber bands, making sure that the joints between the connector and the balloons are airtight.Carefully cut off the bottom 1 inch from the bottle, using the scissors. Make sure thecut edge of the bottle is smooth. Place the balloons and connector inside. Seal the plastic tube into the neck of the bottle with the modeling clay to make an airtight fit.Tie a knot in the neck of the third balloon. Then carefully cut it in half, crossways.Gently stretch the knotted part of the balloon over the lower end of the bottle, and pull it around the sides. Make the balloon as taut as you can-like a drum skin. Now hold it by its knot.The lower balloon represents the diaphragm, the main breathing muscle. Pull it down,As though you were inhaling. This lowers the air pressure in the bottle. Air from outside rushes in and makes the two balloons expand just like the real lungs in your chest.Additional assignment:Read pages 334 in Body Structures and Functions. In your own words, explain the process of inspiration and expiration. Write your answer on the back of this handout.
23BellringerText page 346Applying practice to theory1-A
24The Race Is ONYour cards are marked with matching colors or markings. Assemble yourselves according to color/mark, makes 2 teams.On a signal given by the teacher, the students arrange themselves in a line in the order that air would pass through them.Students will need to decide what to do with the mouth and nose as air comes in both, and the right and left bronchus as air goes thorough both. Leader only, tell teacher when done.
25PULMONARY VENTILATION (Breathing) EXPIRATIONOpposite action takes placeExhalation is a passive processDiaphrgam move up/relaxesINSPIRATIONIntercostals muscles lift ribs outward, sternum rises and the diaphragm contracts and moves downward – this increases the volume of the lungs and air rushes in.
26Mechanics of Breathing Breathing is due to the change in the pressure within the thoracic cavityNormal pressure =negative, < atmospheric pressure, keeps lungs expandedThe trigger to breath will alter the pressure and a mechanical change will occur
27Control of BreathingBreathing controlled by neural and chemical factors.Neural FactorsRespiratory center located in MEDULLA OBLONGATA on CO2 or O2 in the blood will trigger respiratory center (pg 336)A) PHRENIC NERVE – stimulates the diaphragm and intercostals musclesB) VAGUS NERVE impulses from nose larynx, lungs, skin and abdominal organs(Hering-Breuer –prevents overstretching)Chemical FactorsDepends on the levels of CO2 in the blood (respiratory center in brain)Chemoreceptors in aorta and carotid arteries sensitive to the amount of blood O2Sensory ImpulsesNerve pathways carry sensory impulses from the nose, larynx, lungs, skin and abdominal organs via the vagus nerve in the medulla.
28Bell Fix question number 5 on Breathing Control Worksheet Sensory Impulses“Nerve pathways carry sensory impulses from the nose, larynx, lungs, skin and abdominal organs via the vagus nerve in the medulla.”If you are on the track team…bring the completedBreathing Control Worksheet now
30Respiratory Movements 1 inspiration + 1 expiration = 1 respirationNormal adult = respirations per minuteIncreases with exercise, body temperature, certain diseases.Age - newborn = 40-60/minSleep = respirations Emotion can or rate
31Bell…. Complete 2nd ½ of Breathing control worksheet Answer all 10 questions (using notes and text…not each other) Resp. Structure worksheet
32Coughing – deep breath followed by forceful expulsion of air – to clear lower respiratory tract. Hiccups – spasm of the diaphragm and spasmotic closure of the glottis – irritation to diaphragm or phrenic nerveSneezing – air forced through nose to clear respiratory tractYawning – deep prolonged breath that fills the lungs, increases oxygen within the blood
33Is yawning contagious?According to research performed at New York State University, between 40 and 60 percent of the population seems to find yawning contagious.Researchers from the State University of New Yorkin Albany tested people to find out why some are susceptible to contagious yawning and deduced that self-aware or empathetic people are more likely to catch yawns.People even yawn when watching animals, but not the other way!.
34Control of Breathing Breathing controlled by neural and chemical factors. Neural Factors§ Respiratory center located in MEDULLA OBLONGATA§ on CO2 or O2 in the blood will trigger respiratory center Two pathways:1) PHRENIC NERVE – stimulates the diaphragm and intercostal muscles2) VEGUS NERVE-Sensory impulses-from nose, larynx,skin lung and abd. Hering-Breuer Reflex-not over- extend the lungs.(Vegus nerve too)Chemical Factors§ Depends on the levels of CO2 in the blood (respiratory center in brain)§ Chemoreceptors in aorta and carotid arteries sensitive to the amount of blood O2 (Morphine)
35Bell… Organ Donation/would you or would you not? And the Essay results are in!Of the 22 submitted 18 would donate for others to useOf 22 submitted 4 would donate for scienceHave in front of you the disease fact chart and your outline
36Breath In Breath Out Cut the Boy out…leave him in the ‘frame’ Cut the slitstop of heada and bDiaphragmCut out ‘pull’ stripCut out A and B ribsLabel…(L) and ® lung, pharynx, trachea, alveoli, intercostal muscles, and diaphragm
37Vital Lung Capacity Total amount of air insp. And exp reserve (page 364)
38Respiratory Disorders COMMON COLDContagious viral respiratory infectionIndirect causes - chilling, fatigue, lack of proper food, and not enough sleepRx – stay in bed, drink warm liquids and fruit juice, good nutritionAlso called an Upper Respiratory Infection (URI)Handwashing – best preventative measureLARYNGITISInflammation of larynx or voice boxOften secondary to other respiratory infectionsSymptoms – sore throat, hoarseness or loss of voice, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing)
39Employability Skills Find the person in this class with the same disorder on the card. Do not trade/switch=0. Assign the following roles: respiratory therapist or doctor and patient, or family member, etc. MUST HAVE EQUAL PARTICIPATION! The patient is diagnosed with a respiratory disorder (describe their symptoms) and the therapist must explain the disease and treatment to the patient and the family..***You have 10 minutes to research and prepare your skits. You can use your notes during skit!***
40Diseases of Respiratory System SINUSITISInfection of mucous membrane that lines sinus cavitiesCaused by bacteria or virusSymptoms – headache or pressure, thick nasal discharge, loss of voice resonanceRx – symptomatic, surgery for chronic sinusitisPHARYNGITIS – red, inflamed throat
41Acute bronchitis characterized by cough, Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the trachea and bronchial tubes, producing excessive mucousMay be acute or chronicAcute bronchitis characterized by cough,fever, substernal pain and RALES (raspy sound)Chronic bronchitis – middle or old age, cigarette smoking most common cause
42INFLUENZA (Flu)Viral infection causing inflammation of the mucous membraneFever, mucopurulent discharge, muscular pain, extreme exhaustionComplications – pneumonia, neuritis, otitis media and pleurisyRx – treat the symptoms
43PNEUMONIA Pneumonia Infection of the lung Caused by bacteria or virus Alveoli fill with exudates (thick fluid)Symptoms – chest pain, fever, chills, dyspneaRx – O2 and antibiotics
44TUBERCULOSIS Infectious bacterial lung disease Tubercles (lesions) form in the lungsSymptoms: cough, low grade fever in the afternoon, weight loss, night sweatsDiagnosis – TB skin testIf skin test positive – follow up with chest x-ray and sputum sampleRX – antibiotic
45ASTHMA Inflammatory airway obstruction Caused by allergen or psychological stress5% of Americans have asthmaSymptoms: difficulty exhaling, dyspnea, wheezing, tightness in chestRx: anti-inflammatory drugs, inhaled bronchodilator
46EMPHYSEMAAlveoli become over-dilated, lose their elasticity, can’t rebound, may eventually ruptureAir becomes trapped, can’t exhale – forced exhalation requiredReduced exchange of O2 and CO2Dyspnea increases as disease progressesRx – alleviate the symptoms, decrease exposure to respiratory irritants, prevent infections, restructure activities to prevent need for O2
47BellFill in all blanks on the Respiratory Disorder Chart
48Bell….Use NC Careers book to discover the career of Respiratory Care PractitionerDescribe job dutiesH.S. class preparationList at least 5 places you could workDescribe academic requirements (college)$$$$List at least 5 colleges
49Bell.. Complete P on page 224/workbook. Review for Respiratory test/labelingBring (clean) write on/wipe off lungs up to the front.Put your packet on the front table; Make sure your name is on it!Test will start at 1:45