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The Respiratory System

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1 The Respiratory System
Chapter 46.3


3 Respiratory Structures
-Nose: contains small hairs that filter particulates. -Nasal Cavities: contain cilia that act as an additional filter of the incoming air. Also contains mucous that protects tissues, warms, and moistens the air. -Pharynx: passageway leading to the trachea. (contains two passageways for food and air)

4 -Epiglottis: keeps food from entering the trachea.
-Larynx: voice box, vocal cords, ‘Adams Apple’. -Trachea (windpipe): leads to the bronchi tubes, made of cartilage. Mucous and cilia lined. -Bronchi Tubes: two tubes that split off from the trachea, each one leads to lung. Mucous and cilia lined.

5 Into the lungs we go… -Bronchioles: branchlike extensions of the main bronchi. -Alveoli: sacs of the lungs where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged by diffusion between the air and the blood.

6 What makes up the respiratory system?
a pair of lungs, passageways into your body, and a muscle called the diaphragm. Function = process by which an organism exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide with its environment.

7 What are the three types of respiration?
External Respiration- occurs in the lungs, exchange of gases between the air and your lungs. Internal Respiration- exchange of gases between the blood and body cells. Cellular Respiration- production of ATP (energy) in cells.

8 When you take a breath of air, what exactly are you breathing?
-Inspiration: process of inhaling air. Nitrogen 78% Oxygen 21% Carbon Dioxide .03% Other gases .97%

9 -Expiration: process of exhaling air.
Nitrogen 78% Oxygen % Carbon Dioxide 4.49% Other gases .97%

10 -Your lungs have a total capacity of approx. 4-5 Liters.
-When you take a breath, you normally inhale approx. .5 Liters. -When you exhale completely, you have a residual volume of air left in your lungs of approx. 1 Liter.

11 Where does carbon dioxide come from?
-Once oxygen diffuses into the blood stream, the oxygen is transported to cells all over your body for cellular respiration. The waste product of cellular respiration is carbon dioxide and water.

12 How exactly do you breathe?
-The action of your diaphragm and muscles between your ribs allow you to breathe in and out. -When you inhale, your rib muscles and diaphragm contract, expanding your chest cavity. (Diaphragm moves lower into the chest cavity.)

13 -When you exhale, your rib muscles and diaphragm relax, returning your chest cavity to a resting position forcing air out.

14 Who or what controls respiration?
-Breathing is a involuntary response. -Receptors in the medulla oblongata detect high amounts of carbon dioxide and send signals to your rib muscles and diaphragm. -Oxygen receptors in the aorta and carotid arteries send signals to the brain when the oxygen level is too low.

15 Respiratory Illnesses
-Asthma: contraction of the bronchioles due to a allergic reaction. -Bronchitis: bacterial infection in the bronchioles. -Emphysema: rupturing of the alveoli (smoking). -Pneumonia: virus and bacterial infection (severe). -Lung Cancer

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