Presentation on theme: "Respiratory System Objectives:"— Presentation transcript:
1Respiratory System Objectives: Describe the structure of the respiratory systemAnalyze the function of the respiratory systemIdentify characteristics and treatment of common respiratory disorders
2Respiratory SystemIncludes the nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, alveoli, lungs, and pleura.
3Nasal Cavity Nasal Septum=divides nasal cavities into R and L sides Cilia- the hairs in your nose, trap larger dirt particles.
4Sinuses- cavities in the skull Connected to the nasal cavity, by ductsLined with mucous membrane to warm and moisten airSinuses give resonance to the voice.
5Pharynx Pharynx (throat) Common passageway for air and food 5” long When food is swallowed, the Epiglottis closes over the opening to the larynx preventing food from entering the lungsPharynx
6Meet the Larynx Larynx- voice box Triangular chamber below the pharynx Within the larynx are vocal cordsEpiglottis covers larynx during swallowingAdam’s appleProduces soundMade of cartilage fibrous plates
7Meet the Trachea Windpipe. 4 ½ in. long. Walls are alternate bands of membrane and C shaped rings of hyaline cartilage to keep trachea open and more rigidLined with ciliated mucous membrane.Coughing and expectoration gets rid of dust-laden mucous.
8Did Someone say Bronchi and Bronchioles are next? Lower end of trachea divides into R and L bronchusBecome bronchial tubes and bronchioles as branches enter lungsPassageway for air from trachea to alveoli in lungs
9AlveoliClusters of thin-walled sacs made of single layer epithelial tissueInner surfaces covered with Surfactant to keep alveoli from collapsingEach alveolus surrounded by capillariesO2 and CO2 exchange takes place between the alveoli and capillaries (diffusion)
10Lovely Lungs Fill the thoracic cavity Upper part=apex Lower part=base Lung tissue porous and spongy –it floatsR lung=larger and shorter displaced by the liver and has 3 lobesL lung smaller displaced by the heart and has 2 lobes
11Pretty Pleura Thin, moist slippery membrane that covers the lungs. Double walled sac.Space is pleural cavity filled with pleural fluid to prevent friction.
12Test your gray matter….. Alveoli Larynx Pleura Speech Trachea What structure of the respiratory system is responsible for voice production?Which body function is made possible by fibrous plates contained within the cartilage of the larynx?The respiratory system ends in millions of tiny, thin walled sacs called:What covers the outer surface of the lungs and lines the inner surface of the rib cage?The windpipe is referred to as the:The wall of the trachea are made more rigid by the presence of:Each lung is divided into two or three parts called:When the trachea divides to enter both lungs, the tubes that are formed are called:AlveoliLarynxPleuraSpeechTracheaRings of CartilageLobesBronchi
13The medical name for the throat is the: The partition that separated the nose into right and left cavities is the:The medical name for the throat is the:PharynxSeptum
15Function of the Respiratory System External respiration, internal respiration , and cellular respirationProduction of sound (vocal cords)
16Pulmonary Ventilation (Breathing) Inspiration InhalationIntercostal muscles lift ribs outward, sternum rises and the diaphragm contracts and moves downward this increases the volume of the lungs and air rushes in.
17Pulmonary Ventilation ExpirationOpposite action takes place.Exhalation is a passive process
18Respiratory Movements 1 inspiration + 1 expiration=1 respirationNormal adult = 14-20Respirations per minuteIncreases with exercise, body temperature, certain diseases.Age-newborm= 40-60/minSleep= respiration Emotion can or rate
19CoughingDeep breath followed by forceful expulsion of air – to clear lower respiratory tractHiccups – spasm of the diaphragm and spasmotic closure of the glottis- irritation to diaphragm or phrenic nerve.
20SneezingAir forced through nose to clear respiratory tractYawningDeep prolonged breath that fills the lungs, increases oxygen within the blood
21Control Breathing Breathing controlled by neural and chemical factors. Neural FactorsRespiratory center located in the Medulla Oblongata on CO2 or O2 in the blood will trigger respiratory centerPhrenic Nerve- stimulates the diaphragmChemical FactorsDepends on the levels of CO2 in the blood (respiratory center in the brain)Chemoreceptors in aorta and carotid arteries sensitive to the amount of blood O2
22Test your gray matter CO2 level in blood Filtering in the air Respirations would normally increase in number if there was an increase of:Which of the following is initially sensed by the brain to control breathing?Cilia located in the nasal epithelium performs the function of:The normal number of breaths an adult takes each minute at rest is about:Of the following, which is the correct pathway of air into the lungs?Start with larynxWhich body function is made possible by fibrous plates contained within the cartilage of the larynx?The part of respiration that involves taking air into lungs is called:Carbon dioxide in the bloodCO2 level in bloodFiltering in the air14-20Trachea, bronchi, alveoliInspirationSpeech
24Common Cold Contagious viral respiratory infection Contributing factors- chilling fatigue,poor nutrition, and not enough sleepRx- stay in bed, drink warm liquids and fruit juice, good nutritionGood handwashing best prevention.Also called an Upper Respiratory Infection (URI)
25Pharyngitis- red, inflammation throat Laryngitis- Inflammation of the larynx or voice boxSymptoms- sore throat , hoarseness or loss of voice dysphagia (difficulty swallowing)
26BronchitisInflammation of the mucous membrane of the trachea and bronchiSymptoms-cough, fever, substernal paina nd rales (raspy sound)Chronic bronchitis-middle or old age, cigarette smoking most common cause.
27Influenza (Flu) Viral infection of upper respiratory tract Symptoms-Fever, mucopurulent discharge, muscular pain, extreme exhaustionRx – treat the symptoms
28Pneumonia Infection of the lung Caused by bacteria or virus Alveoli fill with thick fluidSymptoms- chest pain, fever, chills dyspneaDiagnosis- x-ray and listening to lungsRx- O2 and antibiotics
29Tuberculosis Infectious bacterial lung disease Tubercles (lesions) forms in the lungsSymptoms: cough, low grade fever in the afternoon, weigh loss, night sweatsDiagnosis- TB skin testIf skin test positive-follow up with chest x-ray and sputum sampleRX- Antibiotic
30TB Game http://nobelprize.org/educational_games/medicine/tuberculosis/ Terms to know:ApneaDyspneaTachypnea
31TuberculosisDue to the increase in immigration, homelessness and AIDS, the incidence of TB is increasing in the United States.TB
32Asthma Inflammatory airway obstruction Caused by allergen or psychological stress5% of Americans have asthmaSymptoms: difficulty exhaling, dyspnea, wheezing, tightness in chestRX anti-inflammatory drugs, inhaled bronchodilator.
33EmphysemaAlveoli become over-dilated, lose their elasticity, can’t rebound, may eventually ruptureAir becomes trapped, can’t exhale-forced exhalation requiredReduced exchange of O2 and CO2Dyspnea increases as disease progressesEmphysemaRX – Alleviate the symptoms, decrease exposure to respiratory irritants, prevent infections, restructure activities to prevent need for O2
34Test your gray matter…Due to increase in illegal immigration, homelessness, and AIDS, the incidence of what disease is increasing in the US?Kim experienced hoarseness for two days and loss of voice for three days. She most likely suffers from:Which of the following disorders is characterized by distended alveoli that have lost their elasticity?A respiratory infection which spreads quickly and results in the greatest loss in production hours each year is:Cough, low grade fever in the afternoon, weight loss, and night sweats are symptoms of what disease?In which of the following diseases does dyspnea worsen as the disease progresses?The two main causes of pneumonia are:John comes into the ER with wheezing, dyspnea, and tightness in the chest. He is experiencing:LaryngitisEmphysemaCommon coldTBBacteria + VirusTBEmphysemaAsthma
35The most common cause of chronic bronchitis is: Influenza is caused by a :VirusCigarette Smoking