Presentation on theme: "Respiratory System Objectives: 1. Describe the structure of the respiratory system. 10.01 2. Analyze the function of the respiratory system. 10.02 3. Identify."— Presentation transcript:
Respiratory System Objectives: 1. Describe the structure of the respiratory system Analyze the function of the respiratory system Identify characteristics and treatment of common respiratory disorders
Respiratory System Includes the nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, alveoli, lungs, and pleura.
Nasal Cavity Nasal Septum=divides nasal cavities into R and L sides Cilia- the hairs in your nose, trap larger dirt particles.
Sinuses- cavities in the skull Connected to the nasal cavity, by ducts Lined with mucous membrane to warm and moisten air Sinuses give resonance to the voice.
Pharynx (throat) Common passageway for air and food 5” long When food is swallowed, the Epiglottis closes over the opening to the larynx preventing food from entering the lungs
Meet the Larynx Larynx- voice box Triangular chamber below the pharynx Within the larynx are vocal cords Epiglottis covers larynx during swallowing Adam’s apple Produces sound Made of cartilage fibrous plates
Meet the Trachea Windpipe. 4 ½ in. long. Walls are alternate bands of membrane and C shaped rings of hyaline cartilage to keep trachea open and more rigid Lined with ciliated mucous membrane. Coughing and expectoration gets rid of dust-laden mucous.
Did Someone say Bronchi and Bronchioles are next? Lower end of trachea divides into R and L bronchus Become bronchial tubes and bronchioles as branches enter lungs Passageway for air from trachea to alveoli in lungs
Alveoli Clusters of thin-walled sacs made of single layer epithelial tissue Inner surfaces covered with Surfactant to keep alveoli from collapsing Each alveolus surrounded by capillaries O 2 and CO 2 exchange takes place between the alveoli and capillaries (diffusion)
Lovely Lungs Fill the thoracic cavity Upper part=apex Lower part=base Lung tissue porous and spongy –it floats R lung=larger and shorter displaced by the liver and has 3 lobes L lung smaller displaced by the heart and has 2 lobes
Pretty Pleura Thin, moist slippery membrane that covers the lungs. Double walled sac. Space is pleural cavity filled with pleural fluid to prevent friction.
Test your gray matter….. What structure of the respiratory system is responsible for voice production? Which body function is made possible by fibrous plates contained within the cartilage of the larynx? The respiratory system ends in millions of tiny, thin walled sacs called: What covers the outer surface of the lungs and lines the inner surface of the rib cage? The windpipe is referred to as the: The wall of the trachea are made more rigid by the presence of: Each lung is divided into two or three parts called: When the trachea divides to enter both lungs, the tubes that are formed are called: Larynx Speech Alveoli Pleura Trachea Rings of Cartilage Lobes Bronchi
The partition that separated the nose into right and left cavities is the: The medical name for the throat is the: Septum Pharynx
That’s all for now….
Function of the Respiratory System 1. External respiration, internal respiration, and cellular respiration 2. Production of sound (vocal cords)
Pulmonary Ventilation (Breathing) Inspiration Inhalation Intercostal muscles lift ribs outward, sternum rises and the diaphragm contracts and moves downward this increases the volume of the lungs and air rushes in.
Pulmonary Ventilation Expiration Opposite action takes place. Exhalation is a passive process
Respiratory Movements 1 inspiration + 1 expiration=1 respiration Normal adult = Respirations per minute Increases with exercise, body temperature, certain diseases. Age-newborm= /min Sleep= respiration Emotion can or rate
Coughing Deep breath followed by forceful expulsion of air – to clear lower respiratory tract Hiccups – spasm of the diaphragm and spasmotic closure of the glottis- irritation to diaphragm or phrenic nerve.
Sneezing Air forced through nose to clear respiratory tract Yawning Deep prolonged breath that fills the lungs, increases oxygen within the blood
Control Breathing Breathing controlled by neural and chemical factors. Neural Factors Respiratory center located in the Medulla Oblongata on CO 2 or O 2 in the blood will trigger respiratory center Phrenic Nerve- stimulates the diaphragm Chemical Factors Depends on the levels of CO 2 in the blood (respiratory center in the brain) Chemoreceptors in aorta and carotid arteries sensitive to the amount of blood O 2
Test your gray matter Respirations would normally increase in number if there was an increase of: Which of the following is initially sensed by the brain to control breathing? Cilia located in the nasal epithelium performs the function of: The normal number of breaths an adult takes each minute at rest is about: Of the following, which is the correct pathway of air into the lungs? Start with larynx Which body function is made possible by fibrous plates contained within the cartilage of the larynx? The part of respiration that involves taking air into lungs is called: Carbon dioxide in the blood CO 2 level in blood Filtering in the air Trachea, bronchi, alveoli Speech Inspiration
Common Cold Contagious viral respiratory infection Contributing factors- chilling fatigue,poor nutrition, and not enough sleep Rx- stay in bed, drink warm liquids and fruit juice, good nutrition Good handwashing best prevention. Also called an Upper Respiratory Infection (URI)
Pharyngitis- red, inflammation throat Laryngitis- Inflammation of the larynx or voice box Symptoms- sore throat, hoarseness or loss of voice dysphagia (difficulty swallowing)
Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the trachea and bronchi Symptoms-cough, fever, substernal paina nd rales (raspy sound) Chronic bronchitis- middle or old age, cigarette smoking most common cause. Bronchitis
Infection of the lung Caused by bacteria or virus Alveoli fill with thick fluid Symptoms- chest pain, fever, chills dyspnea Diagnosis- x-ray and listening to lungs Rx- O 2 and antibiotics Pneumonia
Tuberculosis Infectious bacterial lung disease Tubercles (lesions) forms in the lungs Symptoms: cough, low grade fever in the afternoon, weigh loss, night sweats Diagnosis- TB skin test If skin test positive-follow up with chest x-ray and sputum sample RX- Antibiotic
TB Game es/medicine/tuberculosis/ Terms to know: Apnea Dyspnea Tachypnea
Tuberculosis Due to the increase in immigration, homelessness and AIDS, the incidence of TB is increasing in the United States.
Inflammatory airway obstruction Caused by allergen or psychological stress 5% of Americans have asthma Symptoms: difficulty exhaling, dyspnea, wheezing, tightness in chest RX anti-inflammatory drugs, inhaled bronchodilator.
Alveoli become over- dilated, lose their elasticity, can’t rebound, may eventually rupture Air becomes trapped, can’t exhale-forced exhalation required Reduced exchange of O 2 and CO 2 Dyspnea increases as disease progresses RX – Alleviate the symptoms, decrease exposure to respiratory irritants, prevent infections, restructure activities to prevent need for O 2
Test your gray matter… Due to increase in illegal immigration, homelessness, and AIDS, the incidence of what disease is increasing in the US? Kim experienced hoarseness for two days and loss of voice for three days. She most likely suffers from: Which of the following disorders is characterized by distended alveoli that have lost their elasticity? A respiratory infection which spreads quickly and results in the greatest loss in production hours each year is: Cough, low grade fever in the afternoon, weight loss, and night sweats are symptoms of what disease? In which of the following diseases does dyspnea worsen as the disease progresses? The two main causes of pneumonia are: John comes into the ER with wheezing, dyspnea, and tightness in the chest. He is experiencing: TB Laryngitis Emphysema Common cold TBEmphysema Bacteria + Virus Asthma
The most common cause of chronic bronchitis is: Influenza is caused by a : Cigarette Smoking Virus