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Lesson 2: Breeds of Swine

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1 Lesson 2: Breeds of Swine
Swine Production Lesson 2: Breeds of Swine

2 Breeds of Hogs Berkshire Chester White Duroc Hampshire Landrace
Pietrain Poland China Spotted Yorkshire

3 Berkshire Black with six points and erect ears
Produce high quality meat Imported from England in the early 1800’s

4 Chester White White with small drooping ears
Once popular for their durability and ruggedness; also have good mothering ability Originated in Pennsylvania in the early 1800’s

5 Duroc Red with drooping ears Used to produce fast-growing market hogs
Developed in the United States in the mid-1800’s by crossing red hogs from New York and New Jersey

6 Hampshire Black with a white belt around the front of the body and erect ears Used to produce lean, heavily muscled offspring Imported from England during the early 1800’s

7 Landrace White with large, droopy ears that cover the entire the entire face Used as a maternal breed because of their mothering ability Imported from Denmark in the 1930’s

8 Pietrain Spotted with erect ears
Leanest and most heavily muscled hogs; often carry a stress gene linked to meat quality problems Used to produce terminal sires Imported from Germany and Poland

9 Poland China Black with six white points (like Berkshires) but with drooping ears Have been used to increase growth rates, but the breed’s popularity has decreased because it has not kept up with the trend toward leanness Originated in Ohio in the first half of the nineteenth century

10 Spotted Black and white spots and drooping ears
Have been used because of their rapid growth, but their numbers are small in comparison with other breeds used by the swine industry Originated in Indiana from the Poland China breed; purebred association formed in 1914

11 Yorkshire White with erect ears
Used for mothering traits and for lean, heavily muscled, fast-growing market hogs Imported from England in the early 1800’s

12 2. What are the determining factors in breed selection?
Breeds used in the past Litter sizes Leanness Muscle Current growth rates Efficiency in the conversion of feed to pork

13 3. How are hybrid hogs developed?
A. Hybrid hogs are developed by crossing multiple breeds and selected for desired traits. B. Companies offer hybrid hogs varying in use from a maternal to a terminal emphasis.

14 4. How are inbreeding, outcrossing, and crossbreeding different?
A. Inbreeding – mating two related animals in an attempt to concentrate desired traits in offspring Closebreeding – mating closely related animals Linebreeding – mating animals that are slightly or distantly related, with only one shared ancestor Outcrossing – mating unrelated animals of the same breed; more popular and safer than inbreeding since inbreeding can concentrate undesirable and even detrimental traits Crossbreeding – mating animals of two different breeds, which results in a hybrid offspring that should maximize heterosis, or hybrid vigor

15 The End !

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