HEALTH 9 FIRST AID OPEN WOUNDS EMERGENCY SITUATIONS
Providing First Aid First Aid – the immediate, temporary care given to an ill or injured person until professional medical care can be provided.
Universal Precautions Precautions- actions taken to prevent the spread of disease by treating all blood and other bodily fluids as if they contained pathogens. Hepatitis B HIV
Emergency Response CCCCheck- C heck the scene and the victim CCCCall- all for help, send someone else CCCCare- U nconscious N ot breathing B leeding severely
Types of Injuries Open Wounds Abrasion- occurs when the skin is scraped against a hard surface. Very easily becomes infected.
Open Wounds Laceration- a cut caused by a sharp object, such as a knife or broken glass. Usually has smooth edges. May have rough edges Stitches
Open Wounds Incision- A very smooth clean cut in the skin caused by a surgeon’s scalpel (knife) Very small scar Stitches, staples, tape
Open Wounds Puncture – A small but deep hole caused by a pin, nail, fang, or other object that pierces the skin. High risk of infection Tetanus shot
Open Wounds Avulsion- tissue is partially or completely separated from the body. separated from the body. Heavy bleeding Finger severed FA- pack in ice.
First Aid for Bleeding Clean with mild soap and water Cover with a sterile gauze or clean cloth and press firmly. Cover with a pressure bandage Elevate above heart (if possible) Call for help
Pressure Points IIIIf elevating the wound and applying pressure does not work, you may have to use “pressure points”. Tourniquet- only as a last resort. Do Not Remove!
BURNS VVVVarious causes- H EAT – most common R adiation from the Sun C hemicals E lectricity TTTThree classifications: FFFFirst, Second, Third
Treatment for Burns First degree- run under cold water or soak in cold water (not ice) Second degree- top several layers are damaged, blisters. Use cold water, (not ice), cover, elevate and seek medical attention. Third degree- severe, may damage fat, muscle, nerves and bone. Cold water, cover with sterile dressing, seek medical help immediately. (may not have pain)
Common Emergencies Muscle, Joint and Bone injuries Vary in severity Some can be treated at home, other need medical attention. May need a few days to heal or a few weeks. Muscle cramp- tightening of muscle Many causes- First aid- stretch and massage until loose
Strains vs. Sprains Strain- an injury to a muscle usually from overuse. Pain, swelling, bruising, loss of ROM Sprain – an injury to ligaments, usually a twisting force at a joint. Pain, swelling, bruising, loss of ROM Both may be mild, moderate or severe – which requires surgery,
First aid for Sprains /Strains R – Rest- avoid movements and actions that cause pain. I – Ice- apply ice immediately to help reduce and swelling. At least 20 minutes on then 20-30 off. Repeat for first 48 hours. C - Compression – wrap with an ace bandage to help reduce swelling. (remove at night or loosen) E – Elevate- raising the injured part above the heart helps reduce pain and swelling.
Bone injuries Fracture – a break in the bone. First aid- immobilize, do not move, splint in the position it is in, ice, elevate and seek medical attention.
Bone injuries Dislocation- bones that are placed under stress and disconnect –”out of socket” or normal alignment. First aid – immobilize, ice, elevate and seek medical attention.
Unconsciousness A condition in which a person is not alert and aware of his or her surroundings. Different levels from drowsiness to coma First aid- keep airway open until medical help arrives. Recovery position
Fainting Occurs when blood supply to the brain is temporarily inadequate. Usually brief. First aid- lie on back and elevate the legs. Loosen tight clothing. Sponge face with water. Do not prop head (airway) Seek medical attention. If vomits- quickly roll into recovery position to avoid choking
Concussion A jarring injury to the brain that affects normal brain function. Varying degrees Symptoms may not appear to be serious right away. Should be monitored. If unconscious- do not move- may have spinal cord injury.
Nosebleeds May be caused by trauma or dry air that dries the mucous membrane. First aid – traditional- apply pressure to the nostrils. Non- traditional- Mr. Altland will demonstrate.
Questions? Crutch walking–STAIRS-” up with the good, down with the bad” (handrail) Cane – which side? Answer – opposite Ice or heat? Answer – ice first 48 hours or until swelling is gone, then heat. NO aspirin after concussion!!!