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Presentation on theme: "HEALTH 9  FIRST AID  OPEN WOUNDS  EMERGENCY SITUATIONS."— Presentation transcript:




4 Providing First Aid  First Aid – the immediate, temporary care given to an ill or injured person until professional medical care can be provided.

5 Universal Precautions  Precautions- actions taken to prevent the spread of disease by treating all blood and other bodily fluids as if they contained pathogens.  Hepatitis B  HIV

6 Emergency Response CCCCheck-  C heck the scene and the victim CCCCall- all for help, send someone else CCCCare-  U nconscious  N ot breathing  B leeding severely

7 Types of Injuries  Open Wounds  Abrasion- occurs when the skin is scraped against a hard surface. Very easily becomes infected.

8 Open Wounds  Laceration-  a cut caused by a sharp object, such as a knife or broken glass.  Usually has smooth edges.  May have rough edges  Stitches

9 Open Wounds  Incision-  A very smooth clean cut in the skin caused by a surgeon’s scalpel (knife)  Very small scar  Stitches, staples, tape

10 Open Wounds  Puncture –  A small but deep hole caused by a pin, nail, fang, or other object that pierces the skin.  High risk of infection  Tetanus shot

11 Open Wounds  Avulsion-  tissue is partially or completely separated from the body. separated from the body.  Heavy bleeding  Finger severed  FA- pack in ice.

12 First Aid for Bleeding  Clean with mild soap and water  Cover with a sterile gauze or clean cloth and press firmly.  Cover with a pressure bandage  Elevate above heart (if possible)  Call for help

13 Pressure Points IIIIf elevating the wound and applying pressure does not work, you may have to use “pressure points”. Tourniquet- only as a last resort. Do Not Remove!

14 BURNS VVVVarious causes-  H EAT – most common  R adiation from the Sun  C hemicals  E lectricity TTTThree classifications: FFFFirst, Second, Third

15 Treatment for Burns  First degree- run under cold water or soak in cold water (not ice)  Second degree- top several layers are damaged, blisters. Use cold water, (not ice), cover, elevate and seek medical attention.  Third degree- severe, may damage fat, muscle, nerves and bone. Cold water, cover with sterile dressing, seek medical help immediately. (may not have pain)

16 Common Emergencies  Muscle, Joint and Bone injuries  Vary in severity  Some can be treated at home, other need medical attention.  May need a few days to heal or a few weeks.  Muscle cramp- tightening of muscle  Many causes-  First aid- stretch and massage until loose

17 Strains vs. Sprains  Strain- an injury to a muscle usually from overuse.  Pain, swelling, bruising, loss of ROM  Sprain – an injury to ligaments, usually a twisting force at a joint.  Pain, swelling, bruising, loss of ROM  Both may be mild, moderate or severe – which requires surgery,

18 First aid for Sprains /Strains  R – Rest- avoid movements and actions that cause pain.  I – Ice- apply ice immediately to help reduce and swelling. At least 20 minutes on then 20-30 off. Repeat for first 48 hours.  C - Compression – wrap with an ace bandage to help reduce swelling. (remove at night or loosen)  E – Elevate- raising the injured part above the heart helps reduce pain and swelling.

19 Bone injuries  Fracture – a break in the bone.  First aid- immobilize, do not move, splint in the position it is in, ice, elevate and seek medical attention.

20 Bone injuries  Dislocation- bones that are placed under stress and disconnect –”out of socket” or normal alignment.  First aid – immobilize, ice, elevate and seek medical attention.

21 Unconsciousness  A condition in which a person is not alert and aware of his or her surroundings.  Different levels from drowsiness to coma  First aid- keep airway open until medical help arrives. Recovery position

22 Fainting  Occurs when blood supply to the brain is temporarily inadequate.  Usually brief.  First aid- lie on back and elevate the legs. Loosen tight clothing. Sponge face with water. Do not prop head (airway) Seek medical attention.  If vomits- quickly roll into recovery position to avoid choking

23 Concussion  A jarring injury to the brain that affects normal brain function.  Varying degrees  Symptoms may not appear to be serious right away. Should be monitored.  If unconscious- do not move- may have spinal cord injury.

24 Nosebleeds  May be caused by trauma or dry air that dries the mucous membrane.  First aid – traditional- apply pressure to the nostrils.  Non- traditional- Mr. Altland will demonstrate.

25 Questions?  Crutch walking–STAIRS-” up with the good, down with the bad” (handrail)  Cane – which side?  Answer – opposite  Ice or heat?  Answer – ice first 48 hours or until swelling is gone, then heat.  NO aspirin after concussion!!!



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