(be)at war 处于战争／交战状态 1)The USA then declared that it was at war with that country. 2)When he came back, he found that his country was at war.
desert vt. 抛弃，遗弃，脱离；（在需要的时候） 失去 adj. /n. 沙漠；荒无人烟的 · The hunter deserted his injured comrades. When he had to speak to the headteacher, his courage suddenly deserted him. The rest of the land is mostly desert. He was living on a desert island.
fall to pieces 垮台，崩溃，倒塌， 解体 After the death of Napoleon, his empire began to fall to pieces. The old building fell to pieces in the war. They deserted their organization and it fell to pieces.
last (for) ＋一段时间．持续／延续一段时间 The film will last (for) three hours. The meeting lasted too long for us to sit still.
lay down 放下 ; 铺 ; 制订, 规定 The young mother laid the baby down gently on the bed. The guest laid down his knife and fork with a look of complete satisfaction. These price limits are laid down by the government. The conference will lay down the proper measures and methods.
very few ＝ only a few ＝ only a very few 很少／极少 quite a few ＝ a good few ＝ many 好些／相当多 not a few ＝ many 不少／相当多
replace= take the place of vt. 代替、取代 John will replace Bill in the team. Can anything replace a mother's love and care? We have replaced slave labour with/by machines. Mr A will replace Mr B as president. A 先生将代替 B 先生任总裁。
watch over 查看，照看，负责； 看守，监视等 ① I am his best friend, and I will always watch over him. ② They were watched over by three policemen.
protect sb./sth. from /against … 保护某人／某物免受 … You should wear your sunglasses to protect your eyes against/from sunlight. The air conditioner is covered with a piece of metal board, which protects it from water.
besides adv. ( ＝ moreover ＝ in addition) 还有，而且。通常置于句首。 prep. 除 … 之外，还有 … I don ’ t want to go out now. Besides, I ’ m feeling tired. The task is difficult ； besides, time is limited. There are five other rooms besides these two.
spread vt. 铺开，伸开；涂，抹；传播，散布等 vi. 伸展，延伸；蔓延，传染；传开 ① He spread a blanket on the bed. ② The sea, blue and still, was spread before us. ③ The radio spread the news as soon as it happened. ④ She spread her toys all over the room. ① The forest spreads from here to the river. ② In twenty years the city has spread quickly to the north. ③ The fire spread from the factory to the houses nearby. ④ The captain told his men to spread out.
take on 开始具有，呈现，获得 雇用，接受（从事），让上车 Her face took on an angry look. After the students put up Christmas decorations, the classroom took on a holiday appearance. The factory has opened and it is beginning to take on new workers. He takes on additional work in the evenings. The bus took on more passengers.
nowhere 置于句首是为了强调，这时句子多用倒 装。如果 nowhere 不置于句首，则句子不倒装。 Nowhere else can you enjoy such beautiful music. Nowhere is there a place for him to settle down. My watch is nowhere to be found. The old lady went nowhere, just stayed at home.
具有否定意义并放到句首形成倒装句的词除 副词 nowhere 外，还有 seldom, hardly, never, little, not only … but also, no sooner … than 等。 ① Only then did I realize that I was wrong. ② Seldom does he take part in the conversation. ③ Never in my life have I heard of such a funny story.
include vt. 包括（有时有较活译法） ① You'll find that the plan includes most of your suggestions. ② The Chinese nation includes than 50 national minorities besides the Hans. ③ Everyone here took part in the fight against the flood, including old people. ④ Everybody had something to say, me included.
in a … state 或 in a state of … 处于 … 状态中 The house was in a dirty state. He is in a good state of mind. 他心情舒畅。 At that time, the whole country was in a state of war.
where, when, if,though 等引起的从句，有时 可以简化，只保留从句中必要的成分，特 别当主谓语是 it is/was 时。 He made some marks in the article where (it is ) necessary to do so. Let ’ s practise speaking English when and where (it is) possible.