Presentation on theme: "Key Events and Terms American History CH3- British Colonies Mrs. Cady."— Presentation transcript:
Key Events and Terms American History CH3- British Colonies Mrs. Cady
Bacon’s Rebellion Bacon's Rebellion was an uprising in 1676 in the Virginia colony, led by a 29- year-old Nathanial Bacon. About a thousand Virginians rose (including former indentured servants, poor whites and poor blacks) because they resented the Virginia Governor’s friendly policies towards the Native Americans. When the governor refused to retaliate after a series of Indian attacks on frontier settlements, others took matters into their own hands, attacking Indians, chasing the governor from Jamestown, Virginia and torching the capital. Bacon had control of much of the colony for a while, but he died of fever and the rebellion ended.
Toleration Act of 1649 The Toleration Act of 1649 was a law passed by the Maryland colony requiring religious tolerance. Lord Baltimore and his family established Maryland for Catholics, so this law was intended to protect Catholics who did not want to conform to the Anglican Church (Church of England). The act allowed freedom of worship for all Christians.
Mayflower Compact The Mayflower Compact was the first governing document of Plymouth colony and was created by Pilgrims who crossed the Atlantic on the Mayflower. It was signed in 1620 by 40% of the Mayflower’s passengers and stated that each member of the new colony was going to follow laws and ordinances that the members will create for the greater good of the colony.
Great Migration Great Migration usually refers to the migration in this period of English settlers, primarily Puritans to Massachusetts and the warm islands of the West Indies, They came in family groups, rather than as isolated individuals and were motivated chiefly by a quest for freedom to practice their Puritan religion. From 1630 through 1640 approximately 20,000 colonists came to New England. The so-called Great Migration is not so named because of sheer numbers, but because the movement of colonists to New England was not predominantly male, but of families with some education, leading relatively prosperous lives.
English Bill of Rights 1689 The English Bill of Rights established in 1689, was a set of laws passed by the British Parliament after they replaced the unpopular King James II. King James II made many laws that limited the rights of his people, so Parliament created the English Bill of Rights, which limited the power of the monarch. If parliament disagreed with a law passed by a king or queen, they could, with these new laws, petition the King. These new laws gave colonists some more freedoms to elect representatives to run the colonies and decide upon local issues.
Great Awakening A period of religious revival occurring between the early 1700s and the late 1800s. The first of these “waves” of religious revival was in 1720 when Protestant ministers traveled through the British colonies spreading the word of God. It increased interest in Christianity and membership in the churches. Leaders: Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield
Enlightenment Age of Enlightenment was an intellectual cultural movement that started in Europe around 1650, but spread to the British colonies in the 1700s. Leaders of this movement spread the idea that reason and logic could improve society. Leader: John Locke
Stamp Act 1765 The Stamp Act of 1765 was a tax created by British Parliament that required colonists to pay a tax for stamped printed materials. These materials included magazines, legal documents, newspapers, etc. that colonists used in the colonies. The purpose of the tax was to pay for a large military budget, but the colonists were unhappy with the act.
Townshend Acts 1767 Townshend Acts of 1767 placed duties (tax) on glass, lead, paints, paper, and tea. It was named after the man who proposed it. The purpose of the Townshend Acts was to: 1.raise revenue in the colonies to pay the salaries of governors and judges so that they would be independent of colonial rule 2.to create a more effective means of enforcing compliance with trade regulations 3.to punish New York for failing to comply with the Quartering Act 4.to establish the precedent that the British Parliament had the right to tax the colonies
Boston Massacre Boston Massacre referred to shootings in Boston. People in Boston saw the presence of British soldiers in Boston as a threat. One guard had an argument with a colonist and, after being taunted, fired into the crowd. 3 died. Samuel Adams and other “Sons of Liberty” spread this story and used it as a way to get colonists against the British government.
Tea Act 1773 The Tea Act of 1773 allowed British East India Tea company to sell directly to the colonists instead of to merchants, or shop owners, in the colonies. This angered colonists, especially merchants, who feared that British East India Tea company would be able to sell cheaper tea and put them out of business.
Boston Tea Party Colonists were angry about being taxed so much by the British. After Tea Act of 1773, colonists had had enough taxing. On December 16, 1773, colonists led by “Sons of Liberty” dressed as Indians and snuck onto tea ships docked in the Boston Harbor. They dumped 340 chests of tea into the Boston Harbor.
Intolerable Acts 1774 Intolerable Acts, actually called “coercive acts,” were created as punishment for the Boston Tea Party. It stated the following: 1.The Boston Harbor was closed until all tea was paid for 2.The Massachusetts charter was cancelled 3.Royal officials who were accused of crimes could be tried in England (special treatment) 4.Quartering Act 5.Quebec Act (gave them lots of land) 6.New governor
Headright System A headright is a legal grant of land to settlers. The Headright system was started by the London Company. Colonists who paid their own way to Virginia were given a headright, or 50 acres of land, as a reward for helping to populate the colony. A colonist could earn 50 extra acres of land or each additional person brought from England. Rich colonists could bring servants and gain lots of land.
Indentured Servants In the colonies, farmers, planters, and shopkeepers found it very difficult to hire free workers because cash was short and it was so easy for those workers to set up their own farm. A common solution was to pay the passage of a young worker who would work for several years to pay off the travel costs debt. During that indenture period they were not paid wages, but they were provided food, room, clothing, and training. Indentured servants in the colonies signed a contract to work for a certain amount of time (usually 4-7 years) for whomever paid for their journey to America.
Slave Codes Slave codes were laws each colony had that outlined the rules for slaves and the rights of masters. These codes gave slave-owners absolute power over the African slaves. Examples: The 1712 South Carolina slave code: Slaves were forbidden to leave the owner's property, unless accompanied by a white person, or obtaining permission. If a slave leaves the owner's property with out permission, "every white person" is required to chastise such slaves Any slave attempting to run away and leave the colony (later, state) receives the death penalty Any slave who evades capture for 20 days or more is to be publicly whipped for the first offense; branded with the letter R on the right cheek for the second offense; and lose one ear if absent for thirty days for the third offense; and castrated for the fourth offense. Owners refusing to abide by the slave code are fined and forfeit ownership of their slaves Slave homes are to be searched every two weeks for weapons or stolen goods. Punishment for violations escalate to include loss of ear, branding, and nose-slitting, and for the fourth offense, death. No slave shall be allowed to work for pay, or to plant corn, peas or rice; or to keep hogs, cattle, or horses; or to own or operate a boat; to buy or sell; or to wear clothes finer than 'Negro cloth'
Immigrants Immigrants are people who have left the country of their birth to live in another country. Example: Pilgrims moved from England to the Netherlands in 1608 so that they could practice their religion freely. Since they were from England, but living in the Netherlands, they were immigrants in the Netherlands.
Staple Crops Staple crops are crops that are always needed. Example: Staple crops in the middle colonies were: Wheat Barley oats
Town Meeting Town meetings generally took place in northern colonies where the people lived closer together. (In the south, farms separated people by greater distances). Male colonists gathered to talk about and decide on local issues of interest such as: How to pay for schools How to collect taxes Building roads and public spaces Election of new officials Other community affairs
Committees of Correspondence Samuel Adams and other patriots helped to found the Committees of Correspondence, which were groups of people, who believed the colonies should be free of British rule, that got in touch with other towns and colonies. These committees would share information about new British laws and actions and discuss ways to challenge Britain.
Boycott To actively stop buying or using something in protest. Example: In the colonies, colonists protested the Townshend Acts by boycotting British goods.