Economics What is economics? What is an economy? The study of how people meet needs and get what they want. How people and a government decide to control people’s needs and wants. Examples: capitalism, hunting and gathering, feudalism, mercantilism, etc.
Uniter # 1: Economics Question: What type of economy did the British use to control the American Colonies? Answer: The British tried to control everything! Mercantilism: economic system where the home country controls the trade of its colonies. Goal = for Britain to export more goods than they imported. Whatever was grown in the colonies would be sent to England to be turned into a finished product.
Economic Laws What laws did the English use to control the American Colonies? The Navigation Acts (1650) – Told colonists what to trade and who they could trade with Made mercantilism the law!
Results What were the results of the Colonial Economy (Mercantilism)? Created the Triangular Trade The trade between Africa, England, the West Indies, and the 13 colonies grew Increased slave imports to the US. Helped the Economy grow (especially shipbuilding) But made Americans upset American Colonists began to work and trade together.
Here’s how it works: Colonies send raw materials to England, England finishes goods and sends them back to America and to Africa, Africa sends slaves and gold to the West Indies, and the West Indies sends slaves, sugar, and molasses to the Colonies
Uniter #2: Government What was Colonial Government like? Each Colony had a royal governor (the executive) chosen by the king Each Colony had a legislature = representative government Most legislatures were elected by the people. The governor had some power and the legislature had some. This meant there was limited government
Government Why was Colonial Government Important? It set the precedent (example) for checks and balances and separation of powers This means that each branch of government has some control of the others! Each colonist has representative government and limited government
Rights What rights did the Colonists have? White men who owned land over the age of 21 could vote Rights given to them in the Magna Carta. Rights in the English Bill of Rights – protected the rights of individuals from the government Could not be taxed without the approval of Parliament
Importance How did government and rights unite the Colonists? All had the same rights All had the same type of government Believed in limited government Believed in self government Felt that they should make most of their own decisions
Uniter #3: Colonial Society What was Colonial American society like? More equality in America: Small gentry (wealthy planters, merchants, ministers, royal officials, and successful lawyers) Large middle class (anyone else who owned land): –Mostly farmers, skilled workers, and business owners. –¾’s (75%) of American Society. –Why: a lot of land and it was easy to get! A very small lower class: –Indentured Servants: people who had contracts to work without wages for a time until they had paid off their debt could become middle class when they were free. –Slaves: no freedom = slave codes limited rights.
Colonial Society’s Importance How did this class system unite the colonists? Most people owned land = most people could vote and had a stake in society. They cared what happens to their land and to their country. They would be willing to do what it takes to defend their homes.
Great Awakening What was the Great Awakening? Why was it important? The Great Awakening was a religious reform movement. Led by preachers Called for people to reform their lives and live their lives by the bible. Led to more reform in the North Led to debates in churches and led people to leave and form their own American churches. Americans became independent and challenged authority. This was the first independent American movement.
Education What was education like in the Colonies? Why was it important? New England = education was required (had public schools) Middle Colonies = Churches set up private schools Southern Colonies = People hired tutors All colonies had apprentice programs for people to learn a trade or craft. American education led to American ideas. –The more you know the more independent you are.
The Enlightenment What was the Enlightenment? Why was it important? Movement that claimed all things could be explained with science and reason. John Locke’s ideas about government: –Government got its power from the people not from god. –All people were entitled to certain rights (life, liberty, and property)
Importance Continued Why was the Enlightenment important? How did it unite the colonists? Benjamin Franklin: American enlightenment thinker = inventions and philosophy Used reason to explain the world around him. Applied it to social problems in America Americans began to think for themselves and believe that the world could be explained by science and reason. Led people to ask questions, protest, and become more independent!