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The Colonies Rebel Mr. Phipps American History. A Changing Relationship  All colonies, under royal charter, were under direct control of the governor,

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Presentation on theme: "The Colonies Rebel Mr. Phipps American History. A Changing Relationship  All colonies, under royal charter, were under direct control of the governor,"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Colonies Rebel Mr. Phipps American History

2 A Changing Relationship  All colonies, under royal charter, were under direct control of the governor, who were subject to the rule of king  All Englishmen were represented in Parliament, equally  Colonial representation not based on population or on geographical differences between areas of the Commonwealth  Rights based on Common Law and the English Bill of Rights  All colonists subject to the rule of law  Must abide by trade laws--Navigation Laws  Must pay taxes  Must participate in military service

3 The Gripes  Until 1763, colonial opposition remained more theoretical  Colonists considered themselves loyal to the king  Colonists enjoyed the protection of the British commonwealth  Colonists disagreed with Parliamentary influence and the meddling of governors-- in short, no direct representation

4 The French and Indian War  The outcomes of the European power struggles had dramatic consequences for the colonies  France lost all its colonial positions in North America  Great Britain reasserted its naval dominance  Britain is drained of money and resources, due to the expense of the wars and the wars in Europe  Colonists, both military and civilian, were attacked and brutalized by natives and the French, particularly on the frontier

5 Unintended Consequences  Colonies unify in Albany  Organized by the guidance of Benjamin Franklin, who considered it important for colonies to discuss colonial issues  Important to improve communication  Military complications  Colonists do the majority of the fighting--and dying during the war  Colonists not promoted above rank of colonel  Colonial soldiers forced to serve longer than their length of conscription  Colonists forced to barrack/quarter soldiers in homes

6 The Proclamation  Proclamation of 1763  Before the war, colonists were promised trans- Appalachian settlement (in the Ohio Valley)  After the war, colonists were prohibited from settling  Considered it an egregious abuse of authority  Forced to pay 1/3 the cost of the war  Although colonists didn’t start it, didn’t want to fight it, and didn’t get settlement claims in the Ohio Valley

7 Post-war Problems  Diplomatic Issues  Angry natives--wanted security in former French territory  Repeatedly violated peace treaty terms--Pontiac’s Rebellion  Spread small pox  French natives and fur traders trapped Quebec region  Domestic Problems (for England)  War cost too much  Drained too many resources  Was culmination of 100 years of war  Indicated the vulnerability of Britain--they could lose battles

8 Tax Acts  Taxation Laws--intended to generate revenue to pay off the Empire’s wars  Colonists considered it unreasonable because little of the tax was reinvested in the colonies  Sugar Act, Currency Act, Stamp Act (on all paper products), Quartering Act (forced to house soldiers)

9 Organizing Discontent  Radical Patriots--comprised less than 1/6 of the colonial population, was the most vocal group in the colonies  Patrick Henry--”Give me liberty or give me death”  Sons and Daughters of Liberty--used mob violence to protest tax acts, tarring and feathering, etc  The Association--organized during First Continental Congress to boycott English Goods

10 The British Respond  Repealed Stamp Act  Issued Declaratory Act--authorized governors to legislate in the colonies  Created foundation for enforcement of martial law, the closing of harbors, and curfews  Imposed customs duty  Banned trial by jury  Suspended New York Assembly--considered to radical and dissenting

11 Organizing Opposition  Colonists, particularly in the main cities (Boston, Philadelphia, and New York) vocalize and organize  John Dikkenson published Letter from a Farmer in Pennsylvania (1767)--argued against the right of Parliament to legislate, contended that tax policy was hurting the “everyman”  Committees of Correspondence formed--Sam Adams and James Otis  Published propaganda denouncing Parliament and reaffirms authority of King  Organized inter-colonial communication system  Adoption of Non-Importation Agreements  Resulted in the repeal of the Townshend Act, except for the Tea Tax

12 The Tea Tax of 1773  Considered to be a catalyst for colonial unity  Reduced tax, but gave monopoly to the Dutch East India Co.  With local enforcement of the Non- importation agreements, tea shipments were left unloaded in Boston Harbor  Colonists protested by dumping thousands of crates, nearly $2 million in tea, into the harbor

13 The “Intolerable Acts”  In response to the Boston “Tea Party”, England closes harbor until reparations are paid  Restricted meetings in throughout the city  Instituted martial law  Re-enacted the Quartering Act

14 A Cry for Unity  The First Continental Congress (Sept. 1774)  Intended to facilitate communication between the colonies and resistance leaders  Voted for a complete boycott of British goods  Legitimized the resistance movement by including colonial heavyweights--George Washington, John Adams, Patrick Henry, and 52 other delegates from around the colonies  Issued the Declaration of Rights and Grievances-- an articulate condemnation of Parliamentary abuses  Simultaneously (and secretly) trained local militias

15 Lexington and Concord, April 1775  British sent detachment of troops to seize cache of colonial weapons and gunpowder  British intended to capture Sam Adams and John Hancock  When colonists refused to disperse, shots were fired, beginning the first salvo of the Revolutionary War

16 Pre-War Fighting  May 1775--Benedict Arnold captures Ticonderoga and Crown Point (important garrisons)  June 1775--Battle of Bunker Hill (actually Breed’s Hill), colonists ultimately forced to abandon due to low supplies  Winter, 1775--Battle of Quebec

17 Common Sense, 1776  Needing to boost morale, Thomas Paine writes Common Sense, an easy to read, but eloquent explanation for the revolution  The pamphlet would be the most widely circulated book of the Revolution, read at campfires by the Continental army  Made the war a war of ideas, not just rebellion

18 The Second Continental Congress  Colonists forced to deal with the violence of Lexington and Concord  Military Preparedness  Appointed George Washington (as most experienced military officer) General of the Continental Army  Raised an army  Ordered naval confrontation

19 Mobilizing for War  Political Preparations  Authorized the writing of individual state constitutions  Issued the Olive Branch Petition, a final plea/ultimatum to the King--ignored  Asked Richard Henry Lee to craft an “Independence Resolution”--but too weakly worded  Invited Thomas Jefferson to write the Declaration of Independence--a formal statement of grievances and the declaration of a new country

20 The British War Machine  Strengths  Had a larger population (3:1)  More money  Had manufacturing facilities, factories, and industries  Stronger and better trained army and navy  Had supply of mercenary soldiers (German Hessians)  Had established bureaucracy and government  Weaknesses  Had chronic domestic problems  Problems with France, who wanted revenge  Series of long civil wars and world wars  Had a confused and inept bureaucracy  Had no desire for war  Had second rate generals  Required long supply trains  Had little knowledge of the terrain

21 Colonial Assets  Strengths  Excellent leadership (Washington, Adams, Franklin, Lafayette, etc)  Waging a defensive battle  Had knowledge of the terrain  Self-sustaining, had limitless food supplies  Better riflemen  Fighting for a cause (justice, liberty, freedom, blah, blah, blah)  Weaknesses  Poorly organized, little unity between the colonies  No money, and no central currency  Inter-colonial jealousy, over borders and trade  No military supplies  Undisciplined and untrained army  No navy

22 The War  Dec. 1776--Battle of Trenton-Washington surprises British forces in New Jersey (crossed the Delaware, etc)  Oct. 1777--Battle of Saratoga, British forces crushed and boosted morale of Continental army  1778--The Revolution becomes a world war--most other countries ally with the United States and promise recognition as a new country, hoping to destroy the British Empire  1781--American and French attack on Yorktown  1783--Treaty of Paris--Adams, Franklin, and Jay accept surrender and hash out diplomatic relationship with England, France, and Spai

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