Presentation on theme: "THE CAUSES OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 1754-1783. Causes of the American Revolution Mercantilism British used colonies as source of raw materials and."— Presentation transcript:
THE CAUSES OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION
Causes of the American Revolution Mercantilism British used colonies as source of raw materials and markets for goods colonies could not trade raw materials to any country but Great Britain or produce manufactured goods This was meant to make the colonies rely on the British British rarely enforce these laws (Salutary Neglect), and the colonies prospered as a result, American colonists have a sense of independence (economic and political)
French and Indian War ( ) War between British, French and Indian tribes over control of North America Albany Plan of Union Benjamin Franklin’s proposal for colonial unity during war. Colonies do not want to give up freedoms and reject plan. Treaty of Paris (1763) French kicked out of North America, and British become dominant world power
To provide territory to Indians, British announce Proclamation of 1763 limits colonists’ expansion to Appalachian Mts. The impact of this is that the colonists feel they are being denied territory they help won, and they ignore the Proclamation and move west. The British also decide to raise taxes on the colonies to pay for the war “No Taxation Without Representation!” End to policy of salutary neglect
‘No Taxation Without Representation’ Stamp Act (1765) tax on all paper goods (newspapers, playing cards, legal documents) The colonists protested against this tax Tar and feathered tax collectors Stamp Act Congress unified action by colonies to resist tax Stamp Act repealed by British Parliament in 1766
The colonists succeeded in getting the Stamp Act repealed by protesting. What lesson do you think they learned for future taxes that Parliament and the King would try to implement on the colonies? Answer in your notebook.
Townshend Act (1767) tax on many goods King was trying to prove he could still tax the colonies Colonists still protest all taxes are repealed EXCEPT tax on tea
Boston Massacre In 1768, because of protests, the British sent troops to occupy Boston The colonists agreed to boycott British goods Lots of tension between soldiers and colonists in Boston as a result Led to the “Boston Massacre” in March 1770
Do Now 1. Explain why King George III put taxes on the colonists. 2. What are some reasons why the colonists opposed taxes like the Stamp Act? 3. Explain how the Boston Massacre was an example of propaganda by the Sons of Liberty in influencing colonists’ attitude towards England.
Tea Act (1773) King made tea widely available and cheap Trying to get colonists to buy tea Protests lead to the Boston Tea Party
Coercive Acts (1774) ”Intolerable Acts” Passed in response to the Boston Tea Party King George III wanted to punish the colonies for the Boston Tea Party Closed Boston Harbor no more trade Allowed for quartering of soldiers in the homes of colonists Many colonists believed war was inevitable now
First Continental Congress (1774) Representatives from the colonies met in Philadelphia to discuss how the colonies should respond to the Intolerable Acts Why Philadelphia? How should they respond? Ask king for repeal of the Intolerable Acts Boycott of British goods Colonies should keep in touch about how to deal with these problems Agree to meet in 1 yr if their demands aren’t met by King George III
Why did the colonies declare independence? 1775 King declares colonies are in a state of rebellion Second Continental Congress Meet to deal with the crisis Organize an army George Washington named General of Continental Army Olive Branch Petition last attempt to reconcile with the King 1775—Battle of Lexington & Concord 1776—Battle of Bunker Hill July 4, 1776 Declaration of Independence
The Declaration of Independence Written primarily by Thomas Jefferson Influenced by Enlightenment ideals (reason) Influenced by John Locke “life, liberty, property”, natural rights Government must protect natural rights or be overthrown Purpose Explain reasons for revolt Express people’s natural rights Convince other nations to help (ex. France)
Foundations of the Revolution Democratic Ideals (Democracy = Rule by the people) Ancient Greeks direct democracy (Athens) English history development of democracy 1. Magna Carta (1215) First time limits were put on the King’s power 2. Glorious Revolution (1689) Turned King into a constitutional monarch (Parliament has more power) 3. English Bill of Rights (1689) Certain rights and freedoms are guaranteed
Foundations of the Revolution The Enlightenment 1. John Locke (1680s) influenced Declaration of Independence Said all people have natural rights, gov’t should protect those rights 2. Thomas Paine (1776) wrote “Common Sense” Said it didn’t make sense that the colonists should be ruled by a king Paine wrote in simple language to encourage people to support independence
The Revolutionary War 1776 George Washington loses several battles to the British (Boston, New York) New strategy avoid battles, wait for good opportunities If the war lasts long, hopefully the British will get tired of war and grant U.S. independence
Turning Point of the War 1777 Battle of Saratoga The Americans defeat the British in a major battle Allows Benjamin Franklin to negotiate an alliance with France (they think America can win the war) France will give military and monetary assistance to the United States
End of the War In 1781, the French and Americans surround the major British army at Yorktown, Virginia Gen. Cornwallis The British surrender, and agree to negotiate a peace treaty
The Treaty of Paris, 1783 The United States gets a favorable treaty 1. Great Britain grants colonies independence 2. United States gains all land to the Mississippi River 3. Great Britain promises to remove all their troops from U.S.
Wrap Up 1. What were some historical events that influenced the American Revolution? 2. Why was the French alliance important during the Revolutionary War? 3. Why was the Treaty of Paris favorable to the United States?