2Causes of the American Revolution MercantilismBritish used colonies as source of raw materials and markets for goodscolonies could not trade raw materials to any country but Great Britain or produce manufactured goodsThis was meant to make the colonies rely on the BritishBritish rarely enforce these laws (Salutary Neglect), and the colonies prosperedas a result, American colonists have a sense of independence (economic and political)
3French and Indian War (1754- 1763) War between British, French and Indian tribes over control of North AmericaAlbany Plan of Union Benjamin Franklin’s proposal for colonial unity during war. Colonies do not want to give up freedoms and reject plan.Treaty of Paris (1763) French kicked out of North America, and British become dominant world power
4To provide territory to Indians, British announce Proclamation of 1763 limits colonists’ expansion to Appalachian Mts.The impact of this is that the colonists feel they are being denied territory they help won, and they ignore the Proclamation and move west.The British also decide to raise taxes on the colonies to pay for the war “No Taxation Without Representation!”End to policy of salutary neglect
5‘No Taxation Without Representation’ Stamp Act (1765) tax on all paper goods (newspapers, playing cards, legal documents)The colonists protested against this taxTar and feathered tax collectorsStamp Act Congress unified action by colonies to resist taxStamp Act repealed by British Parliament in 1766
6The colonists succeeded in getting the Stamp Act repealed by protesting. What lesson do you think they learned for future taxes that Parliament and the King would try to implement on the colonies? Answer in your notebook.
7Townshend Act (1767)tax on many goods King was trying to prove he could still tax the coloniesColonists still protest all taxes are repealed EXCEPT tax on tea
8Boston MassacreIn 1768, because of protests, the British sent troops to occupy BostonThe colonists agreed to boycott British goodsLots of tension between soldiers and colonists in Boston as a resultLed to the “Boston Massacre” in March 1770
9Do Now 1. Explain why King George III put taxes on the colonists. 2. What are some reasons why the colonists opposed taxes like the Stamp Act?3. Explain how the Boston Massacre was an example of propaganda by the Sons of Liberty in influencing colonists’ attitude towards England.
10Tea Act (1773)King made tea widely available and cheapTrying to get colonists to buy teaProtests lead to the Boston Tea Party
11Coercive Acts (1774)”Intolerable Acts” Passed in response to the Boston Tea PartyKing George III wanted to punish the colonies for the Boston Tea PartyClosed Boston Harbor no more tradeAllowed for quartering of soldiers in the homes of colonistsMany colonists believed war was inevitable now
12First Continental Congress (1774) Representatives from the colonies met in Philadelphia to discuss how the colonies should respond to the Intolerable ActsWhy Philadelphia?How should they respond?Ask king for repeal of the Intolerable ActsBoycott of British goodsColonies should keep in touch about how to deal with these problemsAgree to meet in 1 yr if their demands aren’t met by King George III
13Why did the colonies declare independence? 1775 King declares colonies are in a state of rebellion Second Continental CongressMeet to deal with the crisisOrganize an army George Washington named General of Continental ArmyOlive Branch Petition last attempt to reconcile with the King1775—Battle of Lexington & Concord1776—Battle of Bunker HillJuly 4, 1776 Declaration of Independence
14The Declaration of Independence Written primarily by Thomas JeffersonInfluenced by Enlightenment ideals (reason)Influenced by John Locke “life, liberty, property”, natural rightsGovernment must protect natural rights or be overthrownPurposeExplain reasons for revoltExpress people’s natural rightsConvince other nations to help (ex. France)
15Foundations of the Revolution Democratic Ideals (Democracy = Rule by the people)Ancient Greeks direct democracy (Athens)English history development of democracy1. Magna Carta (1215)First time limits were put on the King’s power2. Glorious Revolution (1689)Turned King into a constitutional monarch (Parliament has more power)3. English Bill of Rights (1689)Certain rights and freedoms are guaranteed
16Foundations of the Revolution The Enlightenment1. John Locke (1680s) influenced Declaration of IndependenceSaid all people have natural rights, gov’t should protect those rights2. Thomas Paine (1776) wrote “Common Sense”Said it didn’t make sense that the colonists should be ruled by a kingPaine wrote in simple language to encourage people to support independence
17The Revolutionary War 1776-1783 1776 George Washington loses several battles to the British (Boston, New York)New strategy avoid battles, wait for good opportunitiesIf the war lasts long, hopefully the British will get tired of war and grant U.S. independence
18Turning Point of the War 1777 Battle of SaratogaThe Americans defeat the British in a major battleAllows Benjamin Franklin to negotiate an alliance with France (they think America can win the war)France will give military and monetary assistance to the United States
19End of the WarIn 1781, the French and Americans surround the major British army at Yorktown, VirginiaGen. CornwallisThe British surrender, and agree to negotiate a peace treaty
20The Treaty of Paris, 1783 The United States gets a favorable treaty Great Britain grants colonies independenceUnited States gains all land to the Mississippi RiverGreat Britain promises to remove all their troops from U.S.
21Wrap Up1. What were some historical events that influenced the American Revolution?2. Why was the French alliance important during the Revolutionary War?3. Why was the Treaty of Paris favorable to the United States?