Presentation on theme: "(1) (i) What name is given to this structure? (ii) What specific event does it commemorate? [ACH ] (i) Arch of Constantine (ii) The victory of Constantine."— Presentation transcript:
(1) (i) What name is given to this structure? (ii) What specific event does it commemorate? [ACH ] (i) Arch of Constantine (ii) The victory of Constantine over Maxentius. (Both answers are required.)
3) (i)Who dedicated the structure? (ii) How do we know this? [ACH ] (i) The Senate and People of Rome (accept SPQR). Not just “people of Rome”. (ii) We know because of the dedication (on the attic / inscription on the top part). Both answers are required.
4) Who are the figures above the columns? Give ONE way in which they can be identified. [ACH ] Sacking of Dacian (prisoners) They can be identified EITHER from the felt hats OR the trousers OR bushy beards and hair. (Be generous.) Both answers are required..
5) What order of architecture are the four visible columns? [MER] Corinthian No other answers are possible.
6) (i)Describe in detail the scenes depicted on the two roundels in this Reproduction. Left roundel: Right roundel: (ii)Explain how the two roundels are related. [MER ] (i) Left roundel: (Three) men ride on horseback on a boar hunt. A large tree on the left frames the scene. The front horse is rearing up. etc. Right roundel: (Three) men make a sacrifice of a boar to the god Apollo. There is a statue atop a garlanded altar. etc. (These are SAMPLE points. Other points are possible.) (ii) Relationship: Thanksgiving for a successful hunt by the sacrifice (presumably the boar) to Apollo, god of hunting (or similar). Not just “both from Hadrian’s time”; must indicate how the two roundels are related to each other. BOTH (i) AND (ii). Detailed description requires at least TWO points for each roundel.
7) Some of the relief sculptures on this structure are not contemporaneous with the structure itself, but date from the reigns of the emperors Trajan, Hadrian, and Marcus Aurelius. (i)Locate on the structure reliefs that date from the reigns of TWO of the three emperors listed above. (ii)Describe in detail each of these reliefs. (iii)Analyse the specific propaganda effect that was intended by the inclusion of each. Relief (1) Emperor: Location on arch: Description: Analysis of specific propaganda effect: Relief (2) Emperor: Location on arch: Description: Analysis of specific propaganda effect: [MER ] Example (1) Emperor: Trajan Location: The Great Trajanic frieze found under the main arch and on the short sides of the attic. Description: The friezes recall the success of Trajan, arguably the greatest military emperor of all the Roman emperors, over the Dacians. One of the scenes (decursio) shows the emperor riding into battle while the enemy fall beneath his feet. (Other descriptions possible). (At least one specific point of detail is needed). Analysis of propaganda effect: This is a clear attempt to align Constantine’s military success with Trajan’s. This is made particularly obvious by the recarving of Trajan’s head to make it resemble that of Constantine. Example (2) Emperor: Hadrian Location: The eight panels on the attic between the Dacian prisoners. Description: The roundels depict the emperor in various hunting scenes – the hunting party setting out, a bear hunt, a boar hunt and a lion hunt. Each of the hunt scenes is followed by a sacrifice scene to an appropriate god. (At least one specific point of detail is needed). Analysis of propaganda effect: Hadrian was another of the great emperors – renowned for governing the empire during peacetime. There is a clear attempt to align Constantine with Hadrian, the pious philosopher emperor. This is particularly significant given Constantine’s leanings towards Christianity. Example (3) Emperor: Marcus Aurelius Location: The eight panels between the Dacian prisoners on the attic. Description: They commemorate Marcus Aurelius’ victorious campaigns against the Germans and Sarmatians. They show the emperor accepting barbarian captives that are brought to him, and therefore also demonstrate the traditional imperial virtue of clementia. Other panels show the emperor dispensing money to the troops, making a sacrifice after victory, etc. Analysis of propaganda effect: While there are panels that depict military success, the focus is on the character of the emperor – his authority, courage, piety and clementia. There is a clear attempt to suggest that Constantine shares these characteristics. Although no longer visible, it seems likely that Constantine’s head replaced Marcus Aurelius’. for Excellence must have at least ONE specific point of detail. TWO examples of reliefs, correctly located, described in detail, propaganda effect analysed. The intended effect is crucial for the award of Excellence, and must be specific to the emperor. General comments such as “to link Constantine with
8)There are two distinct styles of sculpture present in Reproduction F(ii). (i)Discuss TWO specific stylistic differences between the rectangular frieze (which represents the Emperor addressing the people in an oratio) and the roundels. You must give examples from both the rectangular frieze and the roundels for each point. (ii)Evaluate the effect of such extreme stylistic variation on a single structure. [EXC ] (i) The placement and size of figures in the rectangular relief are more strictly hierarchical, with Constantine centralised, the seated figures of Marcus Aurelius and Hadrian raised up, the senators on a platform above the common folk. In the roundels, the humans are on similar levels and are of similar size. (ii) Figures are largely modelled in summary form, with little attention to detail or variation. While there is some variation (for example, groups turn and talk to each other), the effect is one of a large crowd without individuals. This contrasts with the group scenes in the ara pacis, or Titus’ arch. On the roundels, even the figure of the boar has been detailed so that all manner of facial details, such as teeth and snout, are visible. The general aesthetic effect is greater. (iii) The relief is, for the most part, flat. Little attempt has been made to show a depth of field. The heads of the smaller figures are set at a higher level, rather than in the spaces between the other heads. On the roundels there is a significant difference in the depth of the relief sculpture. For example, the boar is in very high relief compared with the grasses in the background, which are in very low relief. BOTH parts of the question must be answered. In (i), TWO points must be discussed in detail. In (ii), candidates must make at least ONE point of evaluation in detail or more than one point in less detail.