Presentation on theme: "1) (i) From whose imperial villa does this mosaic come? (ii)Where is this villa located? [ACH ] (i) Hadrian (ii) Tivoli Both answers are required."— Presentation transcript:
1) (i) From whose imperial villa does this mosaic come? (ii)Where is this villa located? [ACH ] (i) Hadrian (ii) Tivoli Both answers are required.
(2) When was the mosaic created? [ACH] Around 130 AD (allow some flexibility with dates). (Accept anything between 118–134 AD.).
(3) (i)What Latin name is given to the individual tiles used to create this mosaic? (ii)Give TWO materials that these tiles may have been made of. [ACH] (i) tesserae (ii) Any TWO of: glass coloured stones marble pottery pieces. Both answers are required.
(4) Describe in detail the scene shown top right, with particular reference to the animals, their actions, and the geographical setting. [ACH] There are five goats in a rural setting (numbers not needed) two sitting, three standing two grazing one crossing a bridge. A stream runs through the scene. Rock and hillocks feature in the background and foreground as well as trees and shrubs and a standing statue. (These are SAMPLE points. Other points are possible.) Any THREE points of description are required. The points MUST cover animals, actions, and setting.
(5) You have studied another mosaic found in the same location. Describe in detail what is depicted in the other mosaic. [MER] There are two bulls / a bull and his mate. One lion. The lion is attacking a bull. Mountain / rocks in the background. Central river / pool. Lions teeth are in the buttocks of the bull. Blood drips from its rear leg. There is a gnarled tree in the foreground. (These are SAMPLE points. Other points are possible.) Any THREE points of description are required.
(6) (i)Identify EACH object that the figure on the extreme right in the top Reproduction is holding. Right hand: Left hand: (ii)Discuss the possible significance both of the objects and of the small plaque beneath. [MER] (i) Right hand: a bunch of grapes. Left hand: a thyrsos or staff topped with leaves. (ii) Significance of objects In hands: Linked to Dionysus as the god of wine – the grapes are used to make wine. The leaves on top of the staff are also typically associated with Dionysus. The plaque beneath the rock: This is of uncertain significance. Possibly a votive object, indicating that the statue is one of a goddess; or, another interpretation is that it may be a phallic symbol – related to Priapus as a fertility god. (Other answers are possible.) BOTH (i) and (ii). For (ii), discussion of the significance of any TWO of the three things.
(7)(i)Explain how the mosaic shown top right and the other mosaic you described in question (5) differ in mood. (ii)Discuss in detail THREE ways in which the mosaicist has created this difference in mood by considering animals, landscape, and water. Give specific examples from BOTH scenes to support your points. [MER] (i) The mood of this mosaic is one of calm rural peacefulness. The other mosaic has a mood of violence – a different aspect of nature in the countryside. (Or similar. The mood of BOTH mosaics must be mentioned.) (ii) In this mosaic, the animals are grazing in peace or sitting / standing calmly. In the other mosaic, the bull in the foreground is in distress / wounded and the animal in the background rears back is if concerned. The harsh angular lines of craggy rocks are present in the other mosaic; soft lines and more vegetation are present here. A small trickling river with a bridge links the animals together in this scene; whereas in the other mosaic, there is a larger expanse of water which serves to separate the animals. (Other answers are possible.) BOTH parts of the question must be answered. THREE points fully discussed and exemplified are required for (ii). A bare answer for (i) should not preclude Excellence when considered holistically with (ii).
(8) (i) Identify and discuss in detail THREE ways in which the mosaicist has attempted to mimic stylistic features typical of wall painting, in the mosaic shown in Reproduction E. Provide examples to illustrate your answer. (ii)Choose ONE of these features and discuss the difficulty that the mosaicist faced and how successfully that difficulty has been overcome. [EXC] i) A typical response of an example is given for illustrative purposes. Atmospheric perspective: The mosaicist has used lighter and hazier tones in the background of the mosaic to give the impression of a scene receding into a sunny horizon. This is a feature typical of wall painting. For example, the rocks in the background on the extreme left are in much lighter tones than those in the mid-ground. Chiastic composition + example Brush-strokes mimicked by opus vermiculatum + example Shading / shadows + example Highlighting + example Overlapping + example Four-colour technique + example Foreshortening + example Gradual tonal gradation + example Division into three areas (fore-, mid-, and background) + example (ii) Many answers are possible. A typical response is given for illustrative purposes. Interpret generously, but the difficulty must relate to a technical difficulty of mosaic making. Difficulty with atmospheric perspective: The main difficulty that the mosacist faced was in selection of very small tesserae with such slight tonal variation – it is difficult for the human eye to make such distinctions in such small samples. Evaluation: This has been done successfully in this case, since the impression is genuinely one where the lines of detail in the rock blur into the background. BOTH parts of the question must be answered. In (ii), a difficulty AND an evaluative comment are required.