Presentation on theme: "ARCH OF TITUS. THE ARCH… stands close to the highest point of the Sacred Way (Sacra Via) in Rome. it was along the Sacra Via that a victorious general."— Presentation transcript:
ARCH OF TITUS
THE ARCH… stands close to the highest point of the Sacred Way (Sacra Via) in Rome. it was along the Sacra Via that a victorious general would ride in triumphal procession towards the Temple of Jupiter. is made from a single barrel vault flanked by two tiers which support the entablature and an attic. was originally made of Pentelic marble taken from near Athens. originally on the top of the arch was a gilded chariot driven by Titus.
WHO? WHEN? WHY? the arch was completed by Titus’ brother and successor Domitian. we know this because the inscription on the eastern side of the attic says: “The Senate and the People of Rome, to Divine Titus Vespasian Augustus, son of Divine Vespasian” this tells us that the arch was completed after the death and deification of the emperor Titus, in 81 AD.
THE OUTSIDE… beneath the attic on the frieze of the entablature is a minor frieze depicting a procession of civil and military officials with animals being led to sacrifice. the façades have engaged columns with Composite capitals (Ionic and Corinthian capitals). The spandrels of the arch hold reliefs of winged women – Victories. on the keystones of the archways are a male (on the west) and a female (on the east) figure.
But it’s what’s on the inside the arch that matters most to us…
THE VAULTED CEILING… is decorated with coffers and rosettes. in the centre, at the top of the vault, is a panel depicting the deified Titus ascending to heaven on the back of an eagle (his apotheosis). this confirms the arch was made after his death.
ALSO ON THE INSIDE… two panels on the north and south sides of the interior of the arch show images from Titus career. North panel. South panel.
THE NORTH PANEL
TTTThis panel shows Titus in his triumphal chariot, attended by divinities, senators and lictors carrying fasces. TTTTitus himself rises above the crowd in his chariot with his right hand raised in greeting. SSSSenators walk behind the chariot. TTTTitus and the divinities: aa winged Victory stands behind Titus holding a laurel over his head, aa genius of the Roman people stands by the chariot, aa helmeted Amazonian leads the chariot. tthe presence of these divinities show that all of Rome celebrating Titus’ victory and that here is divine approval for Flavian greatness.
THE SOUTH PANEL
This panel shows a procession with soldiers carrying the spoils of war. Amongst the sacred objects taken from the Temple in Jerusalem by Titus in 70 AD are the seven-branched menorah and the trumpets of Israel and Jericho. Our eyes are drawn towards the spoils of victory.
The soldiers: their heads bob up and down suggesting business, liveliness and depth. the soldiers are shown in ¾ view. the soldiers overlap making the procession looking busy. Roman standards occupy the relatively empty upper part of this frieze.
BOTH FRIEZES unlike others this arches was meant to be walked under. So it is fitting that the reliefs should represent parts of Titus’s procession along the same road. the lower level of the both friezes is cluttered while the upper levels are mostly empty. diagonal lines (placards and fasces) help to break up the open spaces in the upper level. a sense of forward movement is created by the placement of the dominant image. This movement is in the same direction as a Triumphal procession would move. high relief is used in the middle and lower relief is used on the outsides to give the pieces depth. it seems that both processions momentarily swing closer to the viewer as they seem move around a bend in the road. in both these panels we see the human and the divine mixing in the same scene.