3 History: Arch of TitusRoman Emperor ordered it to honor his brother, TitusVia Sacra, RomeFinished in 85 ADLess than 4 years to make13.50 m wide, mhigh, and 4.75 m deepThe 11th Roman Emperor Empire Domitian ordered the arch to honor his brother, TitusDomitian’s older brother10th emperor of RomeSiege of Jerusalem – 70ADDeath:Fever and natural causesPoisoned by Domitian who had been plotting against himA bug flew into Titus’s nose and grew too the size of a birdVia Sacra, Rome South- east of the Roman ForumStarted in 82 AD Finished in 85 AD13.50 meters wide, high, and 4.75 deepInspired the Arc de Triomphe in Paris FranceIn 1821, Giuseppe Valadier restored the arch by using travertine versus
4 Form: Arch of Titus Corinthian order, with Ionic volutes -a composite order that mixes bothBarrel vault to add stabilityHas Roman arch orderSeveral huge engaged columns(attached to wall)Minor Frieze on the entablaturedepicts many military officials,civil officials and sacrificial animalsIncludes a complete entablature(architrave, cornice and frieze)Above the entablature rests an atticthat extends the height of the archSpandrels also include relief sculptureThe Arch of Titus also relies on a barrel vault for its stability in holding up the arch. It too, has many aspects that are of Greek origin such as the fluted columns similar to the Arch of Constantine. However, the Arch of Titus has a composite order of both Corinthian and ionic origins. This means that the columns have Corinthian capitals along with ionic volutes. This arch too has the Roman arch order consisting of the two engaged columns and entablature with an arch inside. Also like the other arch, the Arch of Titus has an attic that rests on top of the entablature. There are also several winged victories on the spandrels like the Arch of Constantine. The many reliefs that are on the arch are made up of various military and civil officials, as well as sacrificial animals. The soffit, which is the underside of the arch, is coffered and has a relief of apotheosis of Titus, where coffered means that the surface consists of sunken panels. Last, the arch has a Roman square capital with inscriptions on either side.
9 History: Arch of Constantine Roman Senate ordered it tohonor Constantine I’s victoriesLocated between the Colosseumand Palatine HillFinished 315 ADTook less than 3 years to complete21 m high, 25.9 m wide and 7.4 m deepLast Roman arch that still exist todayRoman Senate ordered the arch to honor Constantine I and his victory against Maxentius at the battle of Milvian Bridge. The battle took place on October 28, On a side note, Constantine believed he was successful with help from god. This belief lead to his decision to make Rome’s official religion Christianity. This was part of the decline Rome.Located between the Colosseum and Palatine HillFinished 315 ADTook less than 3 years to complete21 m high, 25.9 m wide and 7.4 m deepThree archesLatest Roman arch that still exist today
10 Form: Arch of Constantine Three barrel vaultsRoman arch orderAbove the entablature is an atticImages of Romans and barbarians are depictedColumns are of the Corinthian orderAbove each side archway scenes of sacrifice and hunting are depictedAll reliefs and sculptures are from the four different times of Trajan, Hadrian, Marcus Aurelius, or ConstantineThe Arch of Constantine consists of three barrel vaults, with their layers of arches providing the strength to hold up the arch. The Arch of Constantine also has several other Greek influences besides the revolutionary arch, one of them being the fluted column that is of the Corinthian order. Along with the columns there is the Corinthian capital and a complete entablature that spans all the way around the arch. These elements make up the Roman arch order. However, unlike the Greek buildings, on top of the entablature is the attic rather than the roof of the building. There are many reliefs on this arch where several of them depict the actions of hunting and sacrifice. The spandrels on either side of the main arch depict winged victories. The reliefs were all done in four different times of Hadrian, Trajan, Marcus Aurelius and Constantine. All the art has been reused and copied from past works.
14 To the Emperor Constantine from the Senate and the Roman People To the Emperor Constantine from the Senate and the Roman People. Since through divine inspiration and great wisdom he has delivered the state and the tyrant and his party by his army and noble arms, [we] dedicate this arch, decorated with triumphal insignia" (quoted from Stokstad 241). The same inscription is repeated on both sides.
15 Roman Propaganda Arch of Titus Celebrated victory of Titus in Jerusalem WarsRelief sculpturesshow Romans taking their spoils and parading them aroundEmperor and a winged figure are being pulled in a chariot as though he were a deity.Arch of ConstantineBuilt to display the unification of Rome under Constantine.Used reliefs from previous emperors to compare Constantine to the great emperors of the past.Change of Paganism to Christianity
16 Triumphal Arches: Influence Credited with influencing other “triumphant arches”Arc de Triomphe, arch at Washington Square Park, National Memorial Arch, India Gate