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THE ROMAN EMPIRE GARDNER CHAPTER 10-4 PP. 260-267.

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Presentation on theme: "THE ROMAN EMPIRE GARDNER CHAPTER 10-4 PP. 260-267."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE ROMAN EMPIRE GARDNER CHAPTER 10-4 PP

2 THE FLAVIANS  Nero is forced to commit suicide in 68 CE -> Vespasian becomes emperor -> the Flavians -> his 2 sons Titus and Domitian will become emperors

3 COLOSSEUM  The Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheater), Rome, ca CE  Vespasian builds on the drained lake that was part of Nero’s Domus Aurea -> reclaims the land for the public -> smart politics  Complex system of concrete barrel vaulted corridors hold up an enormous oval seating area -> could seat 50,000  Substructures held waiting rooms for gladiators, animal cages, and machines for raising stage sets  76 gateways to the tiered seats  Façade has 4 bands w/ large arched openings -> Tuscan, Ionic, then Corinthian orders frame the arches -> engaged columns and lintels -> combines Greek architecture and the Roman arch

4 FLAVIAN PORTRAITURE  Portrait of Vespasian, ca CE, marble, 1’4”  Vespasian was a career army officer -> distances himself from Nero’s extravagance and the Augustan tradition of emperor’s portrayed as eternal youthful gods on earth  Return to the veristic tradition of the Republic

5 PORTAIT BUST OF A FLAVIAN WOMAN  Portrait bust of a Flavian woman, from Rome, Italy, ca. 90 CE, marble, 2’1”  Portraits of people of all ages survive from Flavian period -> not just elders  Purpose of this bust is to project idealized beauty -> contemporary fashion -> elegance and delicacy  Elaborate coiffure w/corkscrew curls -> sculptor used a drill to produce this effect -> creates dense mass of light and shadow

6 ARCH OF TITUS  Arch of Titus, Rome, after 81 CE  Erected by the Emperor Domitian in honor of his brother Titus  TRIUMPHAL ARCH = long history of these in Roman art and architecture = free standing arches commemorated a variety of events  Engaged columns frame the arcuated opening -> composited columns Ionic and Corinthian  Reliefs depict victories on the spandrels of the passageway

7 ARCH OF TITUS – RELIEF PANELS  Spoils of Jerusalem, relief panel from the Arch of Titus  Triumphal parade of Titus following his conquest of Judea  Convincing illusion of movement -> high relief in contrast ot the Classical low relief style of the Ara Pacis  Reconstruction of the Triumph of Titus, relief panel from the Arch of Titus  Figure of victory crowns Titus in his triumphal chariot -> bare chested youth personifies honor -> female leading horses personifies valor  First example of the intermingling of human and divine figures in a Roman historical relief

8 HIGH EMPIRE  2 nd century CE -> Roman Empire reaches its greatest geographical extent  The height of Roman power  Secure boundaries of the Pax Romana prosperity for all who came under Roman rule

9 TRAJAN  Domitian’s extravagant lifestyle and huge ego anger the senators and he is assassinated in 96 CE  The senate picks the elderly senator NERVA to be emperor -> he had adopted a popular and successful general to be his son and successor = TRAJAN  Trajan was born in Spain -> first non-Italian to rule Rome  Trajan was voted the title OPTIMUS (the best) -> he and Augustus will be the models for successful rule

10 FORUM OF TRAJAN  Forum of Trajan, Rome, dedicated 112 CE, designed by Apollodorus of Damascus  Huge new forum built by Trajan -> twice the size of the forum of Augustus -> celebrated Trajan’s victories over the Dacians  4 – Basilica -> apses, or semicircular recesses at each short end -> two aisles flank the central nave -> clerestory windows  1 - temple  2 – Column of Trajan  3 – libraries  5 – forum  6 – equestrian statue of Trajan

11 COLUMN OF TRAJAN  Column of Trajan, Forum of Trajan, Rome, 112 CE  Colossal free standing column covered with a continuous spiral narrative frieze 625 long  Tall pedestal served as Trajan’s tomb  Spiral frieze relief depicts Trajan’s campaigns against the Dacians -> 150 episides -> 2500 figures -> band increases in width as it rises  Low reliefs show all aspects of the Dacian Wars from battles to transport to road and fort building

12 MARKETS OF TRAJAN  Aerial view of the Markets of Trajan, Rome, CE -> designed by Apollodorus of Damascus  On the Quirinal Hill overlooking the forum -> housed shops and offices  Concrete construction on a sloping site allowed for a multilevel complex -> contained a two story great hall with the upper level set back and lit by skylights -> groin vaults over the central space

13 ARCH OF TRAJAN, BENEVENTO  Arch of Trajan, Benevento, Italy, CE  Architecturally almost identical for the Arch of Titus -> but relief panels cover both sides and every inch celebrates the Emperor’s achievements on and off the battlefield  Kind of like a billboard advertising the emperor  Emperor in the company of the gods in some scenes


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