Presentation on theme: "EMPEROR OF THE DAY: Constantine Reign: 305 - 337AD Achievements: - Reunified the Roman empire - styled himself after the “five good emperors” of the 100."— Presentation transcript:
EMPEROR OF THE DAY: Constantine Reign: AD Achievements: - Reunified the Roman empire - styled himself after the “five good emperors” of the 100 s - changed the course of history by adopting Christianity as the religion of the roman empire
BACKGROUND: The Tetrarchy Roman Emperor, Diocletian creates the tetrarchy Eastern & Western: each had an Augustus, supported by a Caesar The four were supposed to rule together Diocletian and Maximian: Diocletian’s Self-Imposed Exile (305 CE) Constantius and Galerius: from Caesares to Augusti Constantius dies … his son Constantine assumes power (in York) as an Augustus Constantine’s rise is contested by Maxentius son of Maximian Civil War begins between Constantine and Maxentius
The New Roman Empire
The Triumph of Constantine Battle at Milvian Bridge outside of Rome – October 28, 312 A.D. Constantine’s Vision –The Chi-Rho Monogram Uneasy Peace between Constantine (west) and Licinius (east): A.D. until he defeats Licinius. Constantine extends Diocletianic program –Sub-divisions of power –Dichotomy between civil and military service –Unwieldy bureaucracy –Attempt to “freeze society” In hoc signo vinces “In this sign you will conquer”
Legalization of Christianity Occurs in 313 A.D. with the Edict of Milan –Ending 250 years of persecution Judicial authority given to bishops –Help maintain order Lord’s Day becomes Holy Day (321 A.D.) –From Saturday (Sabbath) to Sunday (Sun god) Christianity using established Roman celebrations Imperial revenue subsidized the Church Constantine and successors gradually increase imperial support for Christianity Uneasy Peace between Constantine (west) and Licinius (east): A.D. Licinius defeated at Adrianople (Balkans, northwest of Byzantium) Constantine extends Diocletianic program –Sub-divisions of power –Dichotomy between civil and military service –Unwieldy bureaucracy –Attempt to “freeze society” A Christian Empire: Ecumenical Council at Nicaea (325 A.D.) –Council called by Constantine to preserve order in the Empire Inauguration of Constantinople (Byzantium; Istanbul) –Built by Constantine in 330 A.D. as the new Rome
THE ARCH OF CONSTANTINE : the largest of the surviving arches in Rome – Septimus, Titus both in the Forum Romanum
THE ARCH OF CONSTANTINE c.315AD Made of Marble West of the Colosseum on the road (via sacra) to the forum Height: 21m Length: 25.7m Depth: 7.4m Built to commemorate Constantine’s victory at the battle of Milvian Bridge over his rival Maxentius
Main Features of the Arch The Colosseum is next door Inscription: SPQR to Constantine – who saved Rome from ‘tyrant’ Maxentius 3- way arch : Main arch and two secondary arches 8 detached Corinthian Columns surround arch
The Inscription Photo: “To the emperor Caesar Flavius Constantine Maximus, Pius Felix Augustus, since through divine inspiration and great wisdom he has delivered the state from the tyrant and all his factions, by his army and noble arms, the Senate and the Roman People, dedicate this arch decorated with triumphal insignia.”
Constantine’s ‘Recycled’ Sculpture Why? Lack of skilled artisans in Rome at the time Lack of time to complete the required reliefs Constantine’s desire to be identified with ‘good emperors’ To make the best arch ever!
MARCUS AURELIUS r Scenes from Marcus Aurelius’ campaigns against Germanic tribes (eg making a speech to his men and speaking to captives). The man standing on the right is a Dacian prisoner from Trajan’s Forum. The ‘Good Emperors’
TRAJAN r This is part of a frieze from Trajan’s campaigns against the Dacians, showing the emperor in battle on horseback. The Trajanic works all came from Trajan’s Forum. Photo:
HADRIAN r This roundel shows Hadrian on a boar hunt. The head of the Emperor has been remodeled to look like Constantine. The ‘Good Emperors’
HADRIAN r The Emperor also hunts a lion. On the alternate roundels, the Emperor Hadrian / Constantine makes a sacrifice to a god (Silvanus, Diana or Apollo). The ‘Good Emperors’
The Constantianian Reliefs Winged Victories in the spandrels of the arch represent the triumph of Constantine / the strength of Rome
The Constantianian Reliefs The roundels on outsides of the arch have representations of the Sun (Sol) and Moon (Luna) gods.
The Constantianian Frieze Content of frieze: Scenes from Constantine’s campaign against Maxentius (for more details, see Campbell, pages 35-39)
The Constantinian Frieze CONSTANTINE r Constantine’s troops march into battle, laying siege to Verona. Shows the organisation and discipline of Constantine’s army.
The Constantinian Frieze CONSTANTINE r Constantine’s troops slaughter Maxientius’s troops. Shows strength and superiority of Constantine’s army.
The Constantinian Frieze CONSTANTINE r The donatio relief shows Constantine giving out money to Romans – he is a generous Emperor. Note the people turned towards him.
The Constantinian Frieze CONSTANTINE r The oratio relief shows Constantine making a speech to Romans – he is an engaging speaker/orator. Note that he is on a higher level.
Match the reliefs with the correct emperor by drawing lines between the names and the reliefs CONSTANTINE MARCUS AURELIUS HADRIAN TRAJAN
See if you can complete the diagram by writing the number for each Emperor on the correct reliefs. 1234