2 Characteristics Support the shoulder girdle and upper limbs Protect the viscera in the thoracic and upper abdominal cavitiesPlay a role in breathing
3 Sternum3 fused bones1. Manubrium2. Body3. Xiphoid process
4 Ribs12 pair of ribs that attach posteriorly to the Thoracic Vertebrae and then curve downward and forward toward the anterior body surface.The ribs increase in length from 1 to 7 and then decrease in length from 8 to 12.
5 RibsTrue Ribs: upper 7 that are attached to the sternum by costal cartilageFalse Ribs: remaining 5; either attach indirectly to the sternum or lack sternal attachment entirelyFloating Ribs: pairs 11 & 12; have no anterior attachment; their costal cartilages lie embedded in the muscles of the lateral body wall
8 Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdle (open girdle) Supports the upper limbsAttachment for several muscles that move the upper limbs
9 Clavicle (Collarbone) Braces the freely movable scapulae, helping to hold the shoulder in place.Provides attachment for muscles of the upper limbs, chest, and back.
10 Scapulae (Shoulder Blades) Triangular bones located on either side of the upper back.A spine divides the posterior surface of each scapula into unequal portions.
11 Scapulae (Shoulder Blades) The spine leads to 2 processes:1. Acromium process that forms the tip of the shoulder; articulates with the clavicle2. Coracoid process that curves anteriorly and inferiorly to the clavicle
18 Hand Metacarpals: Palm, 1 to 5 from thumb to little finger Phalanges: Fingers, 14 bones
19 The Pelvic (Hip) Girdle (closed girdle) Attaches the lower limbs to the axial skeletonSupports the visceral organs of the pelvic cavityFormed by the 2 coxal bones that articulate anteriorly at the symphysis pubis and posteriorly with the sacrumThe 3 bones fuse in the region of a cup-shaped cavity called the acetabulum, which receives the rounded head of the femur
20 Coxal Bones 3 fused bones: 1. Ilium – Largest and uppermost portion that forms the prominance of the hip (iliac crest); joins the sacrum to form the sacroiliac joint2. Ischium – lowest portion; L-shaped; ischial tuberosity points posteriorly and downward and supports the weight of the body when sitting; ischial spine near the junction of the ilium and ischium3. Pubis – anterior portion forms the joint called the symphysis pubis; joins with the ischium to form the largest foramen in the skeleton, the obturator foramen
22 Pelvic Structure and Childbearing False Pelvis: portion superior to the pelvic brimTrue Pelvis: region inferior to the pelvic brim that is almost entirely surrounded by bone and forms a deep “bowl” containing the pelvic organsPelvic Inlet: pelvic brim; widest dimension is along the frontal planePelvic Outlet: inferior margin of the true pelvis; bounded anteriorly by the pubic arch, laterally by the ischia, and posteriorly by the sacrum; since both the coccyx and the ischial spines protrude into the outlet, a sharply angled coccyx or large spines can cause problems during childbirth
24 Comparison of the Male & Female Pelvis CharacteristicFemaleMaleGeneral Structure & Functional ModificationsTilted forward, modified for childbearing; cavity of the true pelvis is broad, shallow, and has a greater capacityTilted backward; adapted for support of a strong body; cavity of the true pelvis is narrow and deepBone ThicknessLess; bones lighter, thinner and smootherGreater; bones heavier and thicker, and markings are more prominentAcetabulumSmaller; farther apartLarger; closer togetherPubic angle/archBroader (over 90o), more roundedAngle is more acute (less than 90o)
25 The Lower Limbs Carry the entire weight of the erect body Subjected to exceptional forces when jumping and runningThicker and stronger than comparable bones of the upper limbs
31 “A segmented structure can only hold up weight if it is arched.” Arches of the Foot“A segmented structure can only hold up weight if it is arched.”The foot has 3 arches that “give when weight is applied to the foot and spring back when the weight is removed:2 longitudinal1. Medial2. Lateral1 transverse