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Human Anatomy & Physiology, Sixth Edition 7 The Skeleton Part A.

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Presentation on theme: "Human Anatomy & Physiology, Sixth Edition 7 The Skeleton Part A."— Presentation transcript:

1 Human Anatomy & Physiology, Sixth Edition 7 The Skeleton Part A

2 The Axial Skeleton  Eighty bones segregated into three regions  Skull  Vertebral column  Bony thorax

3 The Skull  The skull  Cranium  Eight cranial bones –  2 parietal, 2 temporal, frontal, occipital, sphenoid, and ethmoid  Facial bones  Fourteen bones  2 maxillae, 2 zygomatics, 2 nasals, 2 lacrimals, 2 palatines, and 2 inferior conchae  mandible and vomer are unpaired

4 Skull: Anterior View Figure 7.2a

5 Skull: Lateral View Figure 7.3a

6 Skull: Posterior View Figure 7.2b

7 Inferior Portion of the Skull Figure 7.4a

8 Paranasal Sinuses Figure 7.11

9 Vertebral Column  26 irregular bones  7 Cervical vertebrae  12 Thoracic vertebrae  5 Lumbar vertebrae  Sacrum – 5 fused bones  Coccyx – 4 fused bones

10 Vertebral Column: Ligaments  Anterior (ventral) and posterior (dorsal) longitudinal ligaments  Short ligaments connect adjoining vertebrae together

11 General Structure of Vertebrae Figure 7.15

12 Vertebral Column: Intervertebral Discs  Nucleus pulposus – inner gelatinous region  Annulus fibrosus – collar of collagen and fibrocartilage

13 Cervical Vertebrae: The Atlas (C 1 ) Figure 7.16a, b

14 Cervical Vertebrae: The Axis (C 2 ) Figure 7.16c

15 Cervical Vertebrae Figure 7.17a

16 Sacrum and Coccyx: Posterior (dorsal) View Figure 7.18b

17 Thorax (Thoracic Cage)  The thoracic cage  Dorsal - thoracic vertebrae  Laterally - ribs  Ventral - sternum and costal cartilages  Functions  Protective cage around the heart, lungs, and great blood vessels  Supports the pectoral girdle and upper limbs  Attachment sites for neck, back, chest, and shoulder muscles  Intercostal muscles lift and depress the thorax for breathing

18 Thorax: Sternum  Fusion of three bones  manubrium,  sternal body,  xiphoid process

19 Thorax: Ribs  12 pairs  All attached dorsally to the thoracic vertebrae  Vertebrosternal ribs – attach to sternum via costal cartilages – “true ribs”  Vertebrochondral ribs - attach to costal cartilage of rib 7 – “false ribs”  Vertebral ribs - no ventral attachment – “floating ribs”

20 Pectoral Girdle (Shoulders) Figure 7.22a

21 Scapulae (Shoulder Blades) Figure 7.22d, e

22 The Upper Limb  The proximal arm (brachium), distal arm (forearm; antebrachium), and hand (manus)  Thirty-seven bones

23 Humerus of the Proximal Arm Figure 7.23

24 Radia and Ulna of the Distal Arm (Forearm) Figure 7.24

25 Manus (Hand) Figure 7.26a

26 Pelvic Girdle (Hips)  Os coxae - coxal bones  Coxal bone is fusion of 3 bones – ilium, ischium, pubis  Os coxae, sacrum and coccyx, form the bony pelvis

27 Os coxa: Lateral View Obturator foramen

28 Comparison of Male and Female Pelvic Structure  Female pelvis  Tilted forward, adapted for childbearing  Pubic arch obtuse angle  Cavity of the true pelvis is broad, shallow,  Male pelvis  Less tilted forward  Pubic arch acute angle  Cavity of true pelvis is narrow and deep

29 The Lower Limb  the thigh (proximal), leg (distal), and foot

30 Femur Figure 7.28b

31 Tibia and Fibula Figure 7.29

32 Foot Figure 7.31b, c

33 Developmental Aspects: Fetal Skull  At birth, fetal skull bones are incomplete and connected by fontanels  Fontanels  Unossified remnants of fibrous membranes between bones  anterior,  posterior  mastoid  sphenoid Figure 7.33

34  At birth, the cranium is huge relative to the face  Mandible and maxilla are foreshortened but lengthen with age  The arms and legs grow at a faster rate than the head and trunk, leading to adult proportions Developmental Aspects: Growth Rates Figure 7.34


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