Presentation on theme: "Chapter 10:The Middle Ages 500-1400s 500-1400s -Gradual recovery -Spread of new religious beliefs -Conversion of pagans to Christianity -Network of expanding."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 10:The Middle Ages s s -Gradual recovery -Spread of new religious beliefs -Conversion of pagans to Christianity -Network of expanding contacts -New technology -New crops -Scholarship-Culture
Germanic Kingdoms 5 th Century: Germanic invasions cause 5 th Century: Germanic invasions cause 1). Disruption of trade 1). Disruption of trade 2). Downfall of cities 3). Movement of population Roman Catholic Church survives fall of Rome Roman Catholic Church survives fall of Rome : Germanic kingdoms rose : Germanic kingdoms rose. -Tribes bonded by family ties -Tribes bonded by family ties -Small communities -Led by chief; chief controls warriors; warriors loyal to chief Most powerful Germanic tribe was Franks Most powerful Germanic tribe was Franks -Clovis: Converts to Christianity (496), unifies (511), and allies with the Roman Catholic Church.
An Empire Evolves Charles Martel (“Charles the Hammer”) Charles Martel (“Charles the Hammer”) -Ruler of kingdom in 719 -Expands territory -Defeated Muslim forces at Battle of Tours in 732 Passes on power to son, Pepin the Short Passes on power to son, Pepin the Short Pepin wants to be crowned king, so he cooperates with pope. Pepin wants to be crowned king, so he cooperates with pope. Start of Carolingian dynasty ( ) Start of Carolingian dynasty ( ) Dynasty continues with Charles the Great (Charlemagne) Dynasty continues with Charles the Great (Charlemagne)
Charlemagne r r Extensive empire Extensive empire 1). Limits power of nobles 2). Sends out agents to check on kingdom 3). Encouraged learning 4). Opens schools 800: Charlemagne helps Pope Leo III put down a rebellion. 800: Charlemagne helps Pope Leo III put down a rebellion. In return, he is crowned emperor In return, he is crowned emperor -Establishes precedent for pope to crown secular ruler Foundation of the Holy Roman Empire (H.R.E.) Foundation of the Holy Roman Empire (H.R.E.) Dies in 814 Dies in 814 -Grandsons fight over empire. Treaty of Verdun (843) splits empire into 3 parts. Weak rule leads to development of feudalism Weak rule leads to development of feudalism
Feudalism Invasions (Viking, Magyar, and Muslim) Invasions (Viking, Magyar, and Muslim) -Widespread disorder, suffering, overall lack of security People turned to local rulers with personal armies People turned to local rulers with personal armies -Protection = political power ***Feudalism-POLITICAL system where nobles are given land in exchange for loyalty and military service.*** ***Feudalism-POLITICAL system where nobles are given land in exchange for loyalty and military service.*** Lord-Landowner who gives land (fief) Lord-Landowner who gives land (fief) Vassal-Person receiving fief. Vassal-Person receiving fief. -Lesser lord owes military service, payment, advice Knights-Mounted horsemen who give service to lord for land. Knights-Mounted horsemen who give service to lord for land. Serfs-Peasants that are bound to the land. Serfs-Peasants that are bound to the land.
Manorialism A manor is a large estate A manor is a large estate Manorialism is economic system of the Middle Ages Manorialism is economic system of the Middle Ages -The lord provides serfs with: -Housing, farmland, and protection -In return, the serfs: -Tend the land, care for animals, and maintain the estate All peasants, whether free or serf, owed lord certain duties. All peasants, whether free or serf, owed lord certain duties. -Few days of work and portion of grain. Self-sufficient community Self-sufficient community -Dairy, crops, fuel, cloth, leather goods, and lumber -Buy salt, iron, and millstones Peasants paid high taxes to lord and local priest. Peasants paid high taxes to lord and local priest. -Tithe: Church tax
Monarchies Monarchies gain power over time Monarchies gain power over time -Alfred the Great ( ): Unifies England (“Land of the Angles”) -Edward (r ): No heir; fight over succession William, Duke of Normandy, invades in William, Duke of Normandy, invades in Battle of Hastings -Won right to English throne Over time, English kings: Over time, English kings: -Want to hold and add to French lands -Strengthen power over nobles and church Threat to remove town charters (King John r ) Threat to remove town charters (King John r ) -Nobles rebel -Force him to sign the Magna Carta (Guarantees rights) Establishment of Parliament (Legislative body) Establishment of Parliament (Legislative body) -Limits power of king (Power of “purse strings”)
Highly organized POPEBISHOPPRIEST Catholic church was unifying force Catholic church was unifying force -Sense of security and belonging. The Church and Expansion Create canon law Create canon law -All kings and peasants must follow for marriage & religious practices. Disobeying = excommunication Disobeying = excommunication -Kings: Denied salvation and your vassals were freed from their commitments.
H.R.E. Otto the Great crowned king in 936. Otto the Great crowned king in Limit strength of nobles -Uses power to defeat German princes -Invades Italy on pope’s behalf. German-Italian empire became the H.R.E German-Italian empire became the H.R.E Lay investiture-ceremony where kings and nobles appoint clergy. Lay investiture-ceremony where kings and nobles appoint clergy Investiture banned by Pope Gregory; angers Henry IV, German emperor Investiture banned by Pope Gregory; angers Henry IV, German emperor. Henry calls for Gregory to step down, Gregory excommunicates Henry. Henry calls for Gregory to step down, Gregory excommunicates Henry.-Canossa 1122-Concordat of Worms: Church appoints clergy, but emperor can veto. (Separation of church and state); no strong monarchs develops 1122-Concordat of Worms: Church appoints clergy, but emperor can veto. (Separation of church and state); no strong monarchs develops
Pope Gregory VII and Emperor Henry IV faced off in the Investiture Contest, depicted in this twelfth-century manuscript illumination. The dispute became heated, as the expulsion of Gregory by an armed assailant shows. The controversy was not resolved during the principals’ lifetimes and it was not until 1122 that an interim solution was reached.
Theology: Faith and Reason Rational philosophy combined with faith Rational philosophy combined with faith Peter Abelard ( ) Peter Abelard ( ) -Sic et Non (Yes or No) -Bernard of Clairvaux ( ) -God’s truth received through faith alone Results Results-Universities -Growing interest in classical and Arab knowledge -Gothic architecture Thomas Aquinas Thomas Aquinas -Summa Theologica (Through reason you can know natural order, moral law, and nature of God)
Crusades 1096: Byzantine emperor asks for help against Muslim invaders. 1096: Byzantine emperor asks for help against Muslim invaders. Pope Urban II calls all Christians to go on a crusade, or “holy war.” Pope Urban II calls all Christians to go on a crusade, or “holy war.” Goals of the Crusades-Economic, Social, and Political Goals of the Crusades-Economic, Social, and Political 1). Unify and strengthen church 2). Reclaim the Holy Land (City of Jerusalem) 3). Get rid of quarrelsome knights 4). Look for land, wealth, and adventure 5). Sins would be forgiven for participating
Crusades First Crusade First Crusade -Lasts from 1097 to Crusaders capture city of Jerusalem, but were vulnerable to Muslim counterattacks. Second Crusade Second Crusade -Lasts from 1145 to European armies defeated Third Crusade Third Crusade -Lasts from 1189 to Led by three of Europe’s most powerful monarchs (Richard the Lion-Hearted, Frederick I, Philip II) -Richard and Saladin agree to a truce in Jerusalem under Muslim control, Christians free to visit
Commercial Revolution Gains in agriculture cause urban growth Expansion of banking and trade-”Commercial Revolution” Banking -Italian city-states introduce (Facilitate long-distance trade) -Use of money spreads quickly -Investment in trading venture for profit Fairs set up during festivals Local markets instead of manor meet daily needs -Credit -Bills of Exchange -Usury
Trading and Trade Alliances Hanseatic League (Collection of merchants in various cities) -1241: Lübeck and Hamburg Treaty -Northern Germany, Low Countries, England, and Baltics -Enhance mutual commercial interests/protection International trade -Venture shares Cities -Economic centers Politics -Monarchs encourage merchants -Government does not interfere
Guilds Guild-Organization of people in same job working to improve social/economic conditions Merchant Guilds -1 st guilds -Control amount of goods traded (Keep prices high) Artisan (Craft) Guilds -Set standards for quality of work, wages, and working conditions -Health insurance -Funeral expenses -Training in craft -Community service (Police streets, charity for poor, donations to church)
The Rise of Towns Towns grow as a result of trade Drawbacks -Narrow streets filled with animals and waste -Lack of cleanliness -Houses lack fresh air, light, and clean water -Houses fire hazard (Wood construction) Emergence of a new middle class -Merchants and artisans -Burghers: Middle-class town dwellers
The Bubonic Plague (“Black Death”) During the 1300s, an epidemic struck Asia, Europe, and North Africa. The deadly disease was known as the Bubonic Plague The plague traveled along trade routes. The disease gets its name from the purple or black spots it causes on the skin People believed it was God’s punishments for sins. It was actually transmitted by fleas.
The Bubonic Plague The Bubonic Plague took about 4 years to cross all of Europe Approximately 2/3 to 3/4 of anyone who caught the disease died. It killed almost 25 million Europeans. The plague returned every few years, but never struck as severely as it did during the first outbreak. The periodic outbreaks continued to reduce the population.
The Plague that struck Europe in the 1340s can best be appreciated by looking at the effect it had on the population. Area Pre-Plague Post Plague Population Survived England/Wales % Scotland % Ireland % France % Belgium/Lux % HRE % Spain % Italy %
Effects of Plague 1). Decrease in population 2). Trade declines and prices rise. 3). Nobles resist demands for higher wages causing peasant revolts. 4). Anti-Semitism: Jews blamed for bringing the plague. Driven from homes or killed. 5). Church loses prestige