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THE HIGH MIDDLE AGES 1000-1300 “The Age of Faith”.

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1 THE HIGH MIDDLE AGES 1000-1300 “The Age of Faith”

2 FARMING Horse Power– could plow twice as much land Three-field system– Replaced two-field system (now 67% of land was used rather than 50%) More food= increased population – (+ 40% in 150 yrs– 30 mil to 42 mil)

3 RISE OF TOWNS Middle Class – townspeople who did not fit hierarchy of Feudalism Burghers– people who lived in a burgh (walled town/ city) Bourgeoisie– name for burgh dwellers in France Role of Jews– Bankers because Christians not permitted to lend $ for profit Fairs– Typically around a Cathedral during the 4 holy festivals, free peasants would sell/ trade goods, eventually, these fairs became permanent towns/ cities Guilds— association of people who worked at same occupation (prevented competition– equal quality & equal prices) Charters— in exchange for cash, it granted a town independence from a lord

4 CHANGES IN CHURCH Decline in literacy of the clergy due to Viking raids Cardinals– leading bishops now selected pope, not nobles or emperors No marriage for priests Simony– buying and selling of church offices by bishops Lay Investiture– Clergy received church offices by kings or nobles, making the clergy vassals and having control over the clergy

5 POWER OF CHURCH Gregory VII -ordered priests to leave wives and children -end lay investiture Clash with between Pope Gregory VII and Holy Roman Emperor, Henry IV over lay investiture Concordat of Worms: Church grants office while king grants land Canon Law – Tithe – Heretics – Excommunication – Interdict: pope removed religious ceremonies from the land of an excommunicated King or Prince who continued to disobey – Social Services: 25% + of collected tithing was to be used for sick and poor – Inquisition: church court to judge and punish heretics


7 KING’S DEVELOP POWER Throughout Europe the nobles had so much power that often king’s were essentially equal: “first among equals”.

8 ENGLAND: UNIFIED UNDER ONE KING 1066 Battle of Hastings William of Normandy defeats King Harold Now “William the Conqueror” Took all of England – Gave fiefs to 200 Norman lords who swore oath of loyalty to William – Gave land to clergy, Norman bishops who became loyal vassals – Kept 20% of land for self Henry II (grandson of William) creates jury system and common law (common to entire Kingdom)

9 FRANCE: UNIFIED UNDER ONE KING Charlemagne’s last surviving successor died Most powerful nobles selected a weak family to rule France (weak in order for nobles to maintain power) Capetian family was weak but solved problem of succession and ruled the Capetian Dynasty for 200 years.

10 GERMANY: REMAINS UN-UNIFIED Germany does NOT unite as France and England had ~Three reasons 1.Once Carolingian family died, nobles decided to elected kings. This made nobles more powerful than kings. 2.German kings had fewer royal lands as a base of power than French or English kings. Therefore, could not gain enough vassals to become strong. 3.German kings wanted to revive empire of Charlemagne. This led to wars against Italian cities and popes.

11 REVIVAL OF LEARNING THROUGHOUT EUROPE Increase in literacy among lay people Decrease of literacy among clergy Universities Thomas Aquinas Summa Theologiae: answered philosophical questions with logic and reason that supported the church’s answers


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