Presentation on theme: "The Early Middle Ages. Rome is gone! The Middle Ages Rome is gone, barbarians rule Europe Roman and barbarian cultures merge Kingdoms develop (Franks,"— Presentation transcript:
The Early Middle Ages
Rome is gone!
The Middle Ages Rome is gone, barbarians rule Europe Roman and barbarian cultures merge Kingdoms develop (Franks, Goths, Lombards, etc.)
The Merovingian Kings (ruled for 200 years) Clovis ( ) unites the Franks – How? Converts to Roman Catholicism. Why? – Excuse to conquer the rest of Gaul to spread Christianity – Ties him to the major power of Europe (the Church) Becomes the Frankish Kingdom (France gets its name from this)
The Merovingian Kings (ruled for 200 years) After Clovis’ death, individual dukes assert control (feudalism) Reunified by Charles Martel in 737. Halted advance of the Muslims (Battle of Tours)
Age of Charlemagne Frankish King: conquers nearly all of Europe Spreads Catholicism Crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Spoke and read multiple languages Tried to bring back education Created Medieval Europe
Death of Charlemagne Charlemagne’s empire divided between his three sons Louis the German and Charles the Bald each take the lands that like them the most Present the least organized states to brother Lothar Creates lasting divide between Germany and France
Feudalism in Europe
Terms you need to know Feudalism Lord Fief Vassal Knight Serf Manor Tithe Long boat Viking Secular Sacrament Lay investiture Cannon law Clergy Pope Cardinal Monk Priest
The Vikings, Magyars and Muslims How did groups like the Vikings, Magyars and Muslims bring an end to unified govt in Europe?
The Vikings or Norsemen Pride in being fierce warriors Gods were warlike Discovered Americas Attacked primarily by water without warning
Early Castles Alfred the Great of England starts building them
Late Medieval castles
The Deal A New Social Order: Feudalism In 911, two former enemies faced each other in a peace ceremony. Rollo was the head of a Viking army. Rollo and his men had been plundering the rich Seine (sayn) River valley for years. Charles the Simple was the king of France but held little power. Charles granted the Viking leader a huge piece of French territory. It became known as Northmen’s land, or Normandy. In return, Rollo swore a pledge of loyalty to the king. What did Rollo get? What did Charles get? Explain how the deal between Rollo and Charles the Simple led to Feudalism? How could this kind of deal lead to future problems?
What words do you think of?
The Manor 1. Manor House The dwelling place of the lord 2. Village Church Site of both religious services and public meetings 3. Peasant Cottages Where the peasants lived 4. Lord’s Demesne Fields owned by the lord and worked by the peasants 5. Peasant Crofts Gardens that belonged to the peasants 6. Mill Water-powered mill for grinding grain 7. Common Pasture Common area for grazing animals 8. Woodland Forests provided wood for fuel.
Sucks to be you (a serf) The economics of feudalism. What did the lord provide the serf? – Housing – Small 2 room dirt floor. Children rarely survived past infancy – farmland – If children did survive they worked the fields as soon as possible (no education) – protection from bandits. What did the serf have to give the lord in return? – Tax at the mill – Tax to get Married (and only if the lord agreed) – Tax to the church –Tithe- (10%) – A portion of the grain crop – Work the lords land 3 days a week
Sucks to be you (a serf) The economics of feudalism. Why did serfs rarely leave the manor? – The manor was a self-sufficient – Why did the manorial system possibly develop this way? (2 major reasons) What was the life expectancy for a serf? – 35 years old was an old man. – Serfs made up 90% of the population of Europe – Why so young?
Review What is the 1 st major kingdom after the fall of Rome? – Frankish Who are the first 2 rulers of this kingdom? – Clovis & Charles Martel This kingdom gets another new name, what is it? – Holy Roman Empire Who is the 1 st Holy Roman Emperor? – Charlemagne What happens to HRE after Charlemagne’s death? – Split up between sons What causes the breakdown of large kingdoms (not just HRE)? – Vikings What new system of government and society comes about because of the Vikings? – Feudalism
More Review What was exchanged for loyalty under feudalism? – Land or protection Who was at the top of the Feudal Pyramid? – King Next? – Nobles What is this guys job? What were the large estate farms or small kingdoms that people lived on? – Manors Who does it suck to be during the Middle Ages? – Serf (or everyone)
Now What? Viking raids stop either because of fortifications of castles or they have conquered and stayed (England) – 90% of male population in Most of British Isle has been driven off or killed by Viking invaders (Angles & Saxons) – So much that you are reading this language right now! Well, no more Vikings to fight….. How about each other The Pope – only central authority figure must find a way to keep catholic Europe from killing each other. What does he need?