Presentation on theme: "Medieval Europe The Middle Ages were a dark age for Europe. –Near constant invasions and few resources required that Europeans develop a new system for."— Presentation transcript:
Medieval Europe The Middle Ages were a dark age for Europe. –Near constant invasions and few resources required that Europeans develop a new system for living. –This system included all aspects of life, social, political, and economic. It was called Feudalism.
Feudalism Feudalism dominated all aspects of medieval life. –The economic portion of feudalism was centered around the lord's estates or manor –A lord's manor would include all that was needed for village life
Manors Manors were self sufficient; all economic activity occurred on the manor. –So no trade needed –Most of the peasants during the Middle Ages were serfs. Serfs were given land to farm in exchange for service to their lord. The lords had responsibilities also under this system. –In return for the services and taxes paid by the peasants, they provided land and protection to them. –Lords also had to pay fees and give service to high lords and the king. –Feudalism affected all levels of society
The Feudal System Kings Give large land grants to Upper Lords called fiefs Give Protection Receives money, military service, and advice Upper Lords Give land grants to Lesser Lords Give Protection Receives money, military service Lesser Lords Give land grants to knights Receives money, military service Knights Give land to peasants/serfs Receives crops, labor Peasants/ Serfs Receives land to farm Pays with labor, crops The Feudal System Kings Give large land grants to Upper Lords called fiefs Give Protection Receives money, military service, and advice Upper Lords Give land grants to Lesser Lords Give Protection Receives money, military service Lesser Lords Give land grants to knights Receives money, military service Knights Give land to peasants/serfs Receives crops, labor Peasants/ Serfs Receives land to farm Pays with labor, crops
The Age of Charlemagne Around 800 AD Western Europe was briefly unified. –A Christian pope, proclaimed him Emperor of the Romans –widening the split between Eastern and Western Christianity
During the middle ages two distinct Christian churches emerged Roman Catholic Eastern Orthodox
Role of the Church Spiritual: –Religion was a central part of life for medieval people from baptism to marriage. Secular: –In addition to being the social center of the village, the church had economic power and political power. –The Church was the largest landholder, gained wealth through tithing and had its own laws and courts which frequently clashed with Kings authority.
3 complete sentences Would our country be a better place today if the church could still have influence over the govt.
The Crusades In the 1050s the Seljuk Turks invade the Byzantine empire and conquered Palestine or the Holy land. The Muslims and Jews also considered this their Holy Land. The Pope called for a crusade to free the Holy Land
Reasons for the Crusades The Pope wanted to increase his power Christians believed it was their duty to recover the Holy Land Nobles wanted to gain wealth. Adventurers sought travel and excitement Serfs hoped to escape feudal oppression
Impact of the Crusades A major results of the Crusades, include Cultural Diffusion and an increase in trade. European interest in goods from the east was stimulated by returning Crusaders who brought back many things. As the Crusades ended, ships that were once used to carry soldiers to the Middle East, now carried trade goods. Merchants from rich Italian city states, such as Venice and Florence, dominated this trade.
Trade Fairs and Growth of Cities Along the trade routes, trade fairs were established in towns with larger populations, or at major crossroads. Merchants and craftsman settled in these towns, and some grew to be cities of several thousand people. This fundamentally altered the way people lived in Europe, and marked the beginning of the end of feudalism as serfs began to pay their feudal obligations with cash instead of service. An economy based on money, not barter emerged.
The Black Death The bubonic plague was a highly infectious disease spread by the fleas on rats. Rats were common in the cities of this time. This particular outbreak first appeared in China In the early 1300s with deaths of about 35 million Chinese. It was a global epidemic that spread through the increased trade between counties. Between 1347 and 1353, the plague killed one person out of every three in Europe over 25 million.