Parliament in England Honors Western Civilization
Parliament checks royal power in England with the Tudor Dynasty A.Henry VIII realized the power of Parliament B.He needed the Parliament in England to pass his Act of Supremacy in 1534 which made him the head of the Church of England and the ruler of the country C.Ever since the Magna Carta, 1215, the King’s power of taxation had been checked by a legislature D.Elizabeth I’s advisors ensured a good relationship between the Queen and Parliament E.Parliament referred to Elizabeth as “Good Queen Bess”
James I- the Stuart Dynasty A.In 1603, Elizabeth I the “Virgin Queen” died without an heir B.The English throne passed to the Stuarts, the ruling family of Scotland C.When James VI of Scotland traveled south to London to be crowned James I of England, he knew little about English politics D.The Stuarts did not have a good relationship with Parliament which resulted in a “century of revolution” pitting the monarchy against Parliament
Mary Queen of Scots, who was she? Mary Queen of Scotland was born in 1542 Her father, James V, died six days after Mary was born and she became the “infant queen” In 1557, at age 15, Mary married Francis, son of Henry II, king of France, and his wife, Catherine de Medici. Unfortunately, this marriage did not last long as Francis died after only 2 years of marriage.
Who was Mary Queen of Scots? In 1565, Mary married her cousin Henry Stuart, an English nobleman. The bridegroom was proclaimed Henry, King of Scots. Their only child was to become James I of England. Mary soon became disenchanted with Henry, he had become overbearing, arrogant and carried away by his new title. He made enemies of some of the powerful nobles and there was a plot to kill him. Some thought that Mary had knowledge of the plot. Henry, along with his servant, was found strangled to death after the gunpowder blast intended to take his life failed.
Who was Mary Queen of Scots? The rift between Mary and her husband became public knowledge. She turned to a Scottish nobleman, a very powerful man, the Earl of Bothwell, for support. He and other Scottish noblemen proposed to do whatever they could to help the queen in her dilemma. This decision led to a failed explosion plot and to the strangulation death of Henry Stuart. A few months later, Mary and the Earl married. This angered the populace who suspected Bothwell's participation in the murder of their King. Mary's subjects were outraged and turned against her.
What happened to Mary Queen of Scots? She fled to England to ask for help from her cousin Queen Elizabeth I, Instead, she was imprisoned. After 19 years of trying to obtain her freedom, she was charged and found guilty of taking part in a plot to kill Elizabeth. Mary was beheaded at Fotheringhay Castle in 1587. She was 44 years old. Her son, James Stuart became the King of England after the death of Elizabeth I
James I of England James I professed his belief in divine right This meant that monarchs received their power directly from God and that power was absolute This led to resentment between James I and Parliament James asked for money from Parliament to fight foreign wars When Parliament refused, he dissolved parliament and collected taxes anyway
James I and the Puritans James I also had to contend with dissenters (Protestants that disagreed the Church of England) Puritans were protestants who thought that the Anglican Church was moving too close to Catholicism Puritans wanted to “purify” the Church from within, they did not want to leave the Anglican Church They were considered non-separatists
The King James’ Version of the Bible To appease the Puritans, James I supervised a new translation of the Bible in 1611 called the King James’ Version of the Bible This is the most used version of the Bible to this day
King Charles I In 1825, Charles I inherited the throne from his father, James I He too believed himself to be an absolute monarch and had difficulty dealing with Parliament Raised taxes on people and imprisoned citizens without trials Further irritated the Puritans
Charles I vs. Parliament Parliament made Charles sign the Petition of Right which: 1. required that the King go to Parliament before raising taxes 2.Required a promise not to imprison without just cause Charles signed the petition and then dissolved Parliament anyway in 1629
The Long Parliament Time when parliament met from 1640-1660 Parliament demanded a law signed by Charles I saying that the king could not dissolve Parliament without their consent Criticism of the king continued to rise In 1642, Charles I sent troops to arrest members of Parliament Both sides raised their armies which led to civil war in England
The English Civil War 1642-1649 In 1642, civil war broke out between supporters of Charles I (Cavaliers) and supporters of Parliament (Roundheads) Cavaliers- supporters of the king (nobles) called cavaliers because they were mounted horsemen or Calvary Roundheads- mostly middle class or puritans with short hair to show that they rejected the aristocratic lifestyle of long hair
English Civil War continued.. the Roundheads were led by Oliver Cromwell In 1647, Cromwell eventually beat the Cavaliers and they captured Charles I He was tried and executed the same year This marked the first time a ruling monarch had been tried and executed by his own people
The Commonwealth under Cromwell Oliver Cromwell (a Puritan) was chosen to lead the English Republic which became known as the Commonwealth Commonwealth- a nation or state governed by the people or their representatives Republic- a government in which citizens elect their rulers
Problems for Cromwell Different groups with their own ideas of how to run England began to emerge In 1653, Cromwell felt that Parliament was too divided to function so he dissolved it and named himself the Lord Protector This gave Cromwell military rule over the kingdom
Strict Puritan Rule Under Cromwell, the country passed strict Puritan laws: 1.Closed theatres 2.Banned newspapers 3.Banned dancing 4.Banned all forms of entertainment
Restoration Oliver Cromwell died in 1658 Charles II received a warm welcome when he returned to England in 1660, called the Restoration (of the monarchy) Charles II reversed Cromwell’s strict Puritan rule: 1.He held lavish banquets 2.Reopened theatres 3.Encouraged other forms of entertainment such as horse-racing (“the sport of kings”)
Restoration- Charles II Charles II spent his time in exile at the court of Louis XIV He knew that unlike Louis, he would have to accept limits on his power Before he took the throne, he agreed to accept: 1.Magna Carta 2.Petition of Right
Religious toleration under Charles II Secretly favored Catholicism and urged religious toleration Parliament wanted power only from the Anglican Church Emergence of two political parties: The Tories- supported the power of the King and the Anglican Church The Whigs- supported the power of Parliament, were fiercely anti-Catholic
James II and the Glorious Revolution James II inherited the throne from his brother in 1685 James was outwardly Catholic and appointed Catholics to high positions within his government In 1688, Parliament asked Mary (James II daughter) and her husband William III of Orange to take the throne
William and Mary James saw that he had lost support and fled the country In 1689, William and Mary became joint rulers of England Parliament had the new monarchs sign a Bill of Rights: 1.Ensured the power of Parliament 2.Provided individual liberties 3.Barred a Catholic from sitting on the throne
William and Mary The Glorious Revolution William and Mary’s ascension to power and their signing of the Bill of Rights was called the Glorious Revolution because it was a bloodless transition of power from one king to another Established a new form of government in England called a limited monarchy Limited monarchy- government in which a constitution or legislative body limits the power of the monarchy Big Idea : In the age of absolute monarchy, England developed a limited monarchy
Section Quiz: 1.An absolute monarch is a ruler who believes that his power comes from? 2.The Tudors had a good relationship with Parliament, Elizabeth I’s relationship with Parliament led her to be called Good Queen _______? 3.Because she died without an heir, Elizabeth I (the Virgin Queen) passed her crown to this king __________ (name the king) from _________ (name the country)?
Section quiz 4.This is the name of a non-seperatist religious group who believed that James I was moving the country too close to Catholicism? 5.To appease the Puritans, James I had what famous book written? 6.Under Charles II there were two political parties that emerged. What were they? 7.Describe the tories.
Section quiz continued 9.What were the two sides in the English Civil War? 10.Who was the leader during the Commonwealth? 11.Describe two elements of the Puritan rule under Cromwell? 12.The Restoration is a return of what type of government?
Section quiz continued… 13. When James II was too outwardly Catholic who was asked to take over the throne? 14. What was the form of government under William and Mary? 15. Define a limited monarchy.