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Charles the First ‘-that man of blood’ Part 1 ‘1600-1629’

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Presentation on theme: "Charles the First ‘-that man of blood’ Part 1 ‘1600-1629’"— Presentation transcript:

1 Charles the First ‘-that man of blood’ Part 1 ‘1600-1629’

2 Charles was one of three children: Henry 1594-1612 (died of typhoid) Elizabeth 1596-1662 (married Frederick V) Charles 1600-1649 Prince CharlesPrincess ElizabethPrince Henry

3 When James became King of England, Charles was left in Scotland because he was weak.

4 Charles stuttered, had weak legs from rickets, hardly ever saw his mother and was regarded as a runt. James always called him “baby” even when Charles was 24 years old.

5 How prepared was Charles for Kingship? He had been the heir for 12 years. He had been involved with Court factions. As heir he sat in the House of Lords. Did not learn about Scotland. He took his position seriously. King Charles

6 George Villiers 1614 Villiers was introduced to King James in an attempt to wean him away from his favourite - Robert Carr Robert Carr George Villiers

7 Villiers stellar rise to power 1614 Villiers was 22 years old, he had an income of £50 per year 1615 he became a gentleman of the bedchamber with a pension of £1000 1616 he became: -master of the king’s horse with a staff of 200 -master of the king’s horse with a staff of 200 -a Knight of the Garter -a Knight of the Garter -made Viscount Villiers with an estate of £30,000 -made Viscount Villiers with an estate of £30,000 -managed the king’s patronage -managed the king’s patronage -received a miniature of James with his heart in his hand -received a miniature of James with his heart in his hand 1617 he was made an earl 1618 he was made the Marquis of Buckingham 1619 he was made Lord Admiral 1623 he was made the Duke of Buckingham George Villiers

8 Villiers had unique attributes: Youth Youth Beauty Beauty High spirits High spirits Sensuality Sensuality Sweet character Sweet character Devotion Devotion George Villiers and family

9 Charles and Villiers did not initially get along. Villiers was aware of Charles’ potential as heir James wanted peace and encouraged Charles to marry and produce heirs James wanted Charles to marry the Catholic Spanish Infanta to ensure peace Spanish Infanta

10 1618 the Thirty Years War began. It was a struggle between Catholicism and Protestantism. Spain invaded the Palatinate and drove out Charles’ sister Elizabeth and her husband. They fled to Holland. Charles’ marriage plans took on new urgency because Elizabeth was his heir

11 February 1623 Charles and Villiers, under the names of Tom and John Smith, went to Spain to conclude secret marriage talks. Negotiations failed and they returned home to a tumultuous welcome. People were thrilled that the Spanish alliance was over. 1624 Charles and Villiers called for a war against Spain James summoned parliament King James

12 November 1624 James approved of a marriage alliance with France. Parliament approved and army to free the Palatinate (which failed) 1625 James died and Charles became king James was buried Near Henry Vll

13 Charles, unwisely, became more and more dependent on Villiers: Villiers corned the patronage, sale of offices, and titles. This made him many enemies. Villiers corned the patronage, sale of offices, and titles. This made him many enemies. Villiers had friends among High Anglicans, Catholics and William Laud Villiers had friends among High Anglicans, Catholics and William Laud Villiers mother converted to Catholicism Villiers mother converted to Catholicism

14 1625 George Villiers arranged a marriage between Charles and the French Catholic Princess Henrietta Maria

15  Part of the arrangement for the marriage meant that England had to suspend laws against English Catholics  Release Catholics in prison  Lend ships to help the French King against Protestants

16 First Parliament 18 th June – 11 th July Called to grant taxes But there was plague in London. Parliament went to Oxford Charles took his court of 120 peers, 26 bishops, MPs and all their followers. Oxford

17 However, the Parliament did not grant Charles any taxes Tunnage and Poundage (a tax on wool and wine always granted to the monarch for life) was not ratified

18 Between Parliaments October 1625 an ill conceived attack was made on Cadiz. George Villiers was the Lord Admiral Half of the fleet was lost Charles collected Tunnage and Poundage without Parliament’s permission Cadiz

19 Second Parliament 6 th February – 16 th June 1626 Charles wanted money for war Instead Lords and Commons preferred to complain about Villiers and Cadiz and his relationship with Charles Parliament did consider a tax grant of £350,000 but gave top priority to getting rid of Villiers The Commons: -investigated Villiers -investigated Villiers -formulated 13 charges -formulated 13 charges -gave the charges to the Lords -gave the charges to the Lords -common law judges sat -common law judges sat -trial was set -trial was set Charles had now lost control and support of the Lords. Charles excluded Villiers’ enemies the Earls of Arundel and Bristol Charles was criticised for his interference

20 13 Charges Against George Villiers 1. Villiers had excluded others from office for his own gains 2 & 3 He had purchased the position of Lord Admiral from the Earl of Nottingham for £3,000 4. He had not done a good job and had subsequently lost good ships and subjects 5,6,7,8 Misconduct as an admiral 9. He sold titles for profit 10. He took bribes in exchange for offices 11. He promoted his family 12. He gained Crown land for himself 13. He may have administered poison to King James (this was hearsay) (1-12 were also a criticism of Charles) George Villiers

21 Charles dissolved Parliament partially to save George Villiers. Charles still needed money. He began a series of forced loans to pay his mutinous sailors who had not been paid. Men were press-ganged into the military and then billeted without people’s permission. The town of Banbury was burned down by pressed soldiers.

22 During the war with France, Villiers used up all his forced loans to help the French Protestants The church was under the influence of the High Anglican anti-Calvinist William Laud

23 Third Parliament 17 th March – 26 th June 1628 first session Charles recalled parliament Parliament was more concerned with grievances rather than money, and how to stop Charles using his emergency powers

24 Parliament presented Charles with a Petition of Right to sign: -there were to be no arbitrary taxes -there were to be no arbitrary taxes -no illegal imprisonment -no illegal imprisonment -no martial law -no martial law -no billeting without consent -no billeting without consent When Charles finally gave the document royal consent, Parliament granted him five subsidies of £275,000 When Parliament turned their attention to Tunnage and Poundage, Charles dissolved it

25 Between Parliaments August 1628 Villiers prepared another expedition to help the French Protestants George Villiers was stabbed to death Charles was devastated Scene of Villiers death

26 Third Parliament 20 th January – 10 th March 1629 second session Charles called this session to legitimise his collection of Tunnage and Poundage Parliament criticised the rise of Arminianism Charles dismissed Parliament Jacob Arminius

27 Personal Rule 1629-1640 It was Charles’ prerogative to call and dismiss Parliaments He had become disillusioned with Parliaments With a personal rule Charles would be personally liable for all successes and failures

28 End of Part 1 Continue with Part 2 – 1629-1649

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