2Tudors and Stuarts Absolute Monarchy---common in European Countries. Most severe revolt took place in England.Revolution—radical attempt to change he very structure of a country’s government.
3Reign of Mary Tudor1400’s royal family Tudors become England’s rulers.Strengthen their powers as rulers in a way similar to those made by rulers of Spain and France.1st Tudor King Henry VII—stability and prosperity to England.Henry VIII established new official English church, Anglican Church.
4Mary I Henry VIII’s oldest daughter Received the throne in 1553 1st reigning Queen of England.Mary I personal unhappiness and devoted to Catholicism.Courage and kindnessEngland to a Catholic nationMarried Phillip II of Spain Determined to rid England of Clergy300 people burned at the stake “Bloody Mary”
5Reign of Elizabeth I Mary died in 1558 Protestant half sister/becomes QueenUsed Parliamentary acts to prevent conflict and strengthen ProtestantismPeople who did not attend the Anglican Church had to pay fines.Elizabeth NEVER married/ NO KIDS
6Elizabeth IOldest relative and heir to the throne was Mary Stuart Queen of Scotland. Mary Queen of Scots was Catholic—Horrified the English Protestants.1568 Mary wanted to escape problems in Scotland so she fled to England where Elizabeth imprisoned her.Mary plots with Phillip II to kill Elizabeth and seize her throne.Elizabeth signs Mary’s death warrant and in 1587 Mary was beheaded.Phillip II plans an invasion on England.
7Spanish Armada1588 Phillip sends a fleet of 130 ships called Invincible Armada to the English Channel.English ships were smaller and could move more swiftly and was easier to maneuver. Guns fired faster and from a longer distance.English broke the Spanish formation, damaged and sank some of the lumbering vessels.Deadly attempts.Elizabeth’s government still faced two major problems at home.
8Religious ProblemsHenry VIII broken with the Pope and established Anglicanism as England’s religion.“Purify” the English Church—Puritans.No mass, still bishopsPriest dressed in elaborate dress for religious services, congregation still knelt during services.Puritans thought customs were too Catholic and wanted to abolish them.Protestant Tudors thought religious disunity threatened stability. Unite to Anglican Faith.Persecuted remaining Catholics and non-Anglican Protestants such as Puritans.
9Elizabeth I and Parliament Parliament, body of representatives from the whole country. Right to approve all taxes and pass laws.People looked to Parliament as a restraint on the monarchy—represented wishes of people outside central government.2 HousesLords—consisted of nobles and higher clergy.Commons—represented two classes the gentry and the burgesses.
10Elizabeth and Parliament Class lines—crossed for economic reasonsHad powerElizabeth I summoned Parliament often during her reign and gave the appearance of heading them.Couldn’t find a way to keep them from questioning government policies.
11James I English Throne 39 years of age Rough manners Taste for learning/intelligentLacked common sense in financial manners and diplomacy.Believed in Divine Right of KingsFinance and Foreign PolicySupporter of Anglican Church had little tolerance for the Puritans.Bible to English—King James Version of the Bible.Puritans leave EnglandRising inflation and growing government activityCouldn’t collect enough money in taxesSell titles to nobles, monopoly rights to private companiesCreate alliance with Spain—went to war.
12Charles I James I Son Shy but Brave Divine Right of Kings Henrietta Maria a French princessCouldn’t get funds from Parliament—tried to force people to lend him money and imprisoned some who refused.Petition of Right—which reasserted four ancient liberties, Charles signed in hopes Parliament would give him funds.
13Charles I Petition to Right Not to levy taxes Not to declare martial lawNot to quarter soldiers in private homes in peacetimeNot to imprison people without specific charge
14Charles I Continued to levy taxes Disowned Parliament Refused to call upon Parliament for 11 yearsUsed drastic means to collect moneyFavored formal and ceremonial faithWhat problems do you see this leading to?