4Queen Henrietta-Maria Which country did Henrietta Maria come from?Which religious group did she belong to?Why do you think that she could be unpopular with some people in England?
5Religious groups. Which religious group is shown in this picture? What did they believe in?How can we tell they belong to this group?After reading the sheet, write 4 facts about how this group lived their lives.
7The previous pictureCan you identify the picture on the previous page?Clue – it is connected with the Vatican City.Where is the Vatican City and what is it?Who is the most important person in the Vatican City?Write 4 facts about the beliefs of Roman Catholics.
8The Protestants. Who is the secular head of the Church of England? Who is the spiritual head? (look at the picture)
9Charles as King Which church was Charles head of as king of England? What had happened in 1605 which made many people fear Roman Catholics?
10Arguments with Parliament. King James 1 had quarrelled with his parliaments about many things. These included, money, power, religion, Divine Right and favourites. During his reign he gained many enemies. Many of the MPs were Puritans.After James’ death, the arguments continued.
11The Theory of Divine Right. What do you understand by this term?How would it affect the way in which the monarchs would rule?MONEYHow does the government get money to rule the country?How is that money collected?
12Charles’ Personal Rule 1629-1640 Why did Charles decide to rule without a Parliament?Could this happen now?Explain your answer.These 11 years are referred to as years of tyranny by Charles’ enemies and as his Personal Rule by those who supported him
13The Personal RuleThe 2 men who helped to rule during the Personal Rule wereThe Earl of Strafford and Archbishop Laud.
14Governing without a PARLIAMENT What would be the greatest problems which Charles would face?How did Charles raise money?Why would these actions upset people?The tax which caused most anger was Ship Money
15Ship Money What was Ship money? Where was it supposed to be collected from?Where did Charles collect this tax?Why were people so angry about this?
16The Bishops’ warsMany of the Scottish people belonged to the _____________________ Church. Archbishop _________ tried to force them to use the English _____________ book.The Scots refused and there were two wars. As there were no __________ in their church organisation, these wars were known as the ‘________ _________.’ The English lost them and Charles had to call a ___________ to pay for the wars.Bishops’ wars; Parliament; Laud; Prayer; Presbyterian; bishops;
17War is close!The Short Parliament did not give Charles what he demanded.The Long Parliament, after the Second Bishops’ War made demands and refused to give Charles money.Many MPs were Puritans.
18The Grand Remonstrance The MPs drew up a long list of criticisms about Charles. The king had had enough. He decided to get rid of his critics by arresting them in the House of Commons.Why do you think that this was not a good idea?
19The Attempted arrest of the Five Members Charles tried to arrest the 5 leading Puritan MPs, Pym, Strode, Hollis, Hampden, Hazelrigg
20Charles fails!What happened to Charles’ popularity after his failure to arrest the 5 MPs?Charles left London in January 1642 and would never return again as a free man.In AUGUST 1642, Charles set up his royal standard in Nottingham and the Civil War began!
21Which side would you have joined? King’s sideThink of as many reasons as you can for supporting the king.Think of any reasons why you would not support him.Parliament’s sideWhy would you support the parliament?Why might you be angry with what the parliament had done?
22The Two sides.Cavaliers -KingRoundheads - Parliament
24WarThere were 3 main battles during the Civil War. Name these.Why do you think that each side tried to avoid full battles?Why was Charles short of money during the war?Where did Parliament get money from during the war? From the previous maps, explain how land changed hands during the war.
27The New Model ArmyThe New Model Army was created by Cromwell and Fairfax.It had properly equipped and trained soldiers and they were paid.The soldiers were fined for swearing.An ‘Ironside’
28Charles brought to trial This is a picture of King Charles whilst on trial for treason and murder.Where was his trial held?Who were his ‘judges’?How many men tried the king?
29The King’s trialKing Charles was tried by a group of _____________ in ___________ ________.He was accused of being a ___________ . He was not allowed to ________ in his defence during his trial . He was found _________ and was sentenced to _______.His death warrant was signed by _______ men. They are called regicides (killers of a king).traitor; guilty; 59; commissioners; Westminster hall;death; speak.
30The Execution of the King -30th January 1649 Where did the execution take place?Why do you think that there was such a large crowd watching this execution?What has happened to the person on the ground at the front of the picture?
31What happened next? No longer a king –who should rule? Who had been determined that Charles should be tried?What was the name of the parliament whichhad first been called in 1640?
33Was he a hero or a villain? List some good things which Cromwell did for this country eghelped people who were mentally unwellList some things for which Cromwell can be criticised e.g what happened in Ireland.
34What positions did Cromwell take? This is a portrait of Cromwell. What is he wearing on his head?What do you think this means?Why do you think That Cromwell did not accept the title of king?
35Complete the sentences Cromwell took the title of ______________He did not take the title of king because ____________________________________When Cromwell died in 1658, his place was taken by ____________________In 1660, Charles 1’s son, ____________was asked to come to England.He was crowned as _________________ and ruled from
41The death of Charles- who would succeed? Charles did not have any legitimate children and so his brother James inherited the throne. He was unpopular because he was a Roman Catholic.
42The Glorious Revolution -1688 The coronation of William and Mary
43Why had James been driven out? Charles 11 did not have any legitimate children. His brother _______ became king. He was a R______ C________ . He had 2 daughters, M______ and A_______ . He also had a young son and many feared that future kings would be Roman Catholic.James was forced to leave the country in 1688 and his daughter M_____ ruled with her husband W___________ .
44Why was this called the Glorious Revolution? Explain which ‘revolution’ has taken place.Why was it described as ‘glorious’?Consider the drawing of the Bill of Rights – explain why the king is weighed down by the chains.Explain how each of those points limited the power of the king.Copy the sentences from ‘Why is all this so important - real power’ (Aylett p.54)
45Queen Anne How many pregnancies did she have? Who was her father? Who inherited the throne after her death?
46The Hanoverians. King George 1 (1714-1727 Where is Hanover? Why were there problems when he was king?
47The JacobitesThese were the followers of James 11 and they claimed he and his family should rule.
48The Battle of the Boyne -1690 William defeated the Jacobites at this battle in Ireland.
49The Battle of Culloden Moor 1746 ‘Bonny Prince Charlie’ – the last Jacobite claimant to the throne was defeated at the Battle of Culloden Moor in 1746.