Presentation on theme: "Wars of Religion: 16 th Century Europe after Luther."— Presentation transcript:
Wars of Religion: 16 th Century Europe after Luther
Basic Developments in Europe: 1500’s France—time of conflicts: Who will rule—regional aristocracies, oligarchic noble families, royal house, king? Will French domains be Catholic, allow Protestantism, what kind of Protestantism? Britain—time of development: Will Britain continue in the path of Protestantism or return to Catholicism Will Britain “get respect” as a major iimperial power in the face of Spanish competition Spain Will Spain hang on to its role as dominant world power? What is the role of Spain in religious conflicts? HRE Will the HRE be torn apart by foreign monarchs as the major war between Protestants and Catholics rages in German speaking lands Russia Russia struggles for nationhood against powerful neighbors Who will rule—fights between nobles and ruler
France Beginning of Absolutism: monarch is supreme; can exercise full and complete power over nation and subjects without any check of law Huguenots: people who do not accept the Catholic church—general term for French protestants, whether Calvinist or one of the other groups
Background: Charles VII (1422-61) Presided over French recovery from 100 Years’ War Expelled English definitively from France 1 st professional royal army recruited, paid, commanded by the state, not feudal lords Pragmatic Sanction declared the supremacy of council decisions over pope suppressed payment of annates or “first fruits” (Catholic church’s/pope’s right to half of the first year’s salary of any appointed church official) The pope also got 1/10 of the official’s salary after that first year.
Charles VIII (ruled 1483-98) Valois family/son of Louis XI; 13 at succession; sister regent, married to a Bourbon Regarded as pleasant and foolish, with bad health At 21 married heiress (resulting in 4 children, who all died young) and declared self independent French/Italian Wars Claim to Naples through maternal grandma Sforza convinces him to invade N Italy, help him in Milan vs his son Triumphal through N Italy Alliance to oppose him: Venice, papal states, Austria, and ironically, Milan Defeated at Fornovo, lost most of his army, and went home to rebuild Ran into the door frame, died, no heirs Consequences: Italian Renaissance to France
Louis XII (ruled 1498-1515) Actually a cousin of Charles VIII, who died without an heir, he married Charles’s wife to cement relationship with her father (Brittany) He married three wives trying to beget an heir: had two daughters by first wife French-Italian Wars, continued Claimed Milan, so invaded Italy several time Successfully took Milan from Sforza in 1499 and kept it until 1511 Pope Julius lead armies against his forces with support of The Holy League (note the name— because it was lead by the pope) which included Venice and England, Scotland, Austria, etc who came in and out throughout the wars. The French were eventually driven from Milan by the Swiss in 1513. French-Italian Wars, continued again He pursued the French claim to Naples, fighting against Spain. Finally, the two countries partitioned the kingdom; of course, the peace didn’t last long. Spain and France again fought for Naples; the consequence: French lost by 1504.
Francis I (ruled 1515-1547) Father = first cousin to Louis XII; married to his daughter (but Salic Law = women couldn’t inherit the throne) True Renaissance King Fontanbleau + employed Cellini and others = start of what’s in Louvre now DaVinci d. in his arms Educated, wrote poetry Began French national library: he signed law that decreed one copy every book published in France to be sent to national library Chateau of Fontanbleu
Habsburg-Valois Wars 1-2 To check Habsburg power Italy, wo central government, vulnerable; ruled Milan until 1513 Allied with Henry VIII vs Charles V Battle of Pavia; Francis lead the armies himself Defeated by the armies of Charles V Captured; to go home he had to sign… Treaty of Madrid renounced his claims in Italy surrendered Burgundy to Charles Turned over Flanders and Artois.. Refused to abide by the treaty, which he’d signed under duress, so attacked again League of Cognac (1526) with Pope Clement VII, Henry VIII, Venice, and Florence Defeated again: ended with Treaty of Cambrai Left Burgundy to France, but otherwise duplicated the Treaty of Madrid
Hapsburg Valois Wars 3-4 Francis invaded the 3 rd time when Francis Sforza, of Milan died Claimed succession there, invaded Italy In turn, Charles invaded Provence, again defeated Francis Fourth time attacked the emperor, who allied himself (1543) with Henry VIII. Supported by Ottoman Turk, Sultan Sulayman I (Suleiman), invaded Italy (again!) Charles and Henry VIII invade France Treaty of Crépy: Francis relinquishes claims to Naples, Flanders, and Artois. Peace with England (1546) confirmed the loss of Boulogne.
Francis I and the Reformation By 1519, there were people in Paris who were sympathetic to ideas of Luther and Zwingli. However, Luther condemned as a heretic, Parlement of Paris ordered Luther’s books burned, all versions of the Bible except the Latin Vulgate unacceptable. At first, Francis I's attitude toward the Reformed ideas fluctuated between sympathy and persecution. To gain the support of Parlement and the Sorbonne when Charles held Francis prisoner, Louise of Savoy, the king's mother and regent, ok’d suppression of heretical books and a commission to find and punish heretics. On the king's return, at first favored reform, and even appointed Lefvre as tutor to his son. In 1528, when a statue of the Virgin was mutilated, he ordered persecutions. In 1532, to ally with the German Protestants and with England, where Henry VIII was antipapal, he changed again, favored reform once more, and in the royal palace of the Louvre listened to evangelical sermons.
1534 "Affair of the Placards." Placards, attacking the Mass, posted in Paris and elsewhere, one even on the door of the king's bedchamber. Response = renewed persecution; many heretics were burned and others fled; death declared penalty for heretics. (Calvin left Paris at this time because he was in danger) Later on, Francis became a consistent persecutor of heretics, by then 1/10 of population. Edict of Fontainebleau: persecution of “heretics,” mostly middle, lower classes. The Sorbonne issued list of banned books; printing and selling of Protestant works forbidden in France. In 1545 terrible destruction of the Waldensians in Provence, with twenty-two villages destroyed, 3-4000 massacred, 700 sent to the galleys for heresy (Protestantism). In 1546, the "Fourteen of Meaux," burned at Paris..
Concordat of Bologna Between Francis I and Pope Leo X Terms: Pope got: All the income of the Catholic church in France Papal veto of any leader the King of France chose that was deemed truly unqualified Right to annates (which often lead to shuffling of prelates among dioceses Affirmation that the Pope not subject to any council Francis got: Right to tithe churchmen; Restriction of their right to appeal to Rome Right to appoint to benefices (especially archbishops, bishops, abbots), enabling the Crown to decide who was to lead the Church in France. Consequences: No easy reformation agreement in France because kings had no reason to support one. Sets up religious wars between Protestants and Catholics there
Henry II (r 1547-59) His reign was marked by open conflict between Catholics and Protestants in France: during the reigns of his three sons, kings after his death, 9 wars religious wars devastated France Habsburg-Valois Wars, continued War in Italy, with some success, until Charles V abdicated, when his son, Philip, and brother, Ferdinand, split his empire War continued in Flanders, with mixed success and French sacking of Spanish cities there Peace of Cateau-Cambresis, a treaty forced on Henry, made him renounce all claims to Italy, allowed him to retain some Flemish areas. Part of the settlement: his daughter married Philip He arranged for his son to marry the young Mary, Queen of Scotland; he brought her into his court to be raised there, hoping to use her in alliances against the Habsburgs. Persecution of Huguenots : burned them alive or cut out their tongues for speaking their Protestant beliefs. Even those suspected of being Huguenots could be imprisoned for life.
Wife: Catherine de Medici Catherine de Medici, daughter in last Florentine Medici dynasty (Lorenzo II) Overshadowed by Diane de Poitiers, longtime confidante and counsellor, as well as mistress, to Henry Important because she was mother and regent to three kings Her uncle, Pope Clement VII, refused Henry VIII’s request for annulment; he arranged her marriage because he wanted an alliance with Francis against Charles V
Longtime Confidante, Counselor, Mistress Diane de Poitiers Early life: married a relative of Francis I, had two girls widowed, controlled her husband’s lands, ruling well; canny at both politics and finances. In charge of Henry’s education as courtier once returned from Spain, (three years as hostage in place of his father A sharp intellect, So politically astute she wrote many of Henry II’s official letters, signing them: HenriDiane. "brains behind the throne". confidence, maturity, loyalty to Henri II = most dependable ally in the court. Henry II’s total adoration for Diane -- jealousy in Queen Henri entrusted Diane with the Crown Jewels of France, had a luxurious chateau built for her, and gave her another palace that Catherine had wanted for herself. As long as Henry lived, the Queen was powerless to change Diane’s power. In 1559, Henry II critically wounded in a jousting tournament: Queen Catherine de' Medici took control, restricting access Story: the king called out repeatedly for Diane, but she was never summoned or admitted; on his death, not invited to the funeral. Immediately, Catherine banished Diane from the palace Catherine wanted: Diane lived out her life in her own palace.
Henry II’s Death Jousting to celebrate his daughter’s marriage to Philip II, a lance penetrated through helmet to right eye, skull: died 11 days later
The Problem with a Regency Government When a strong king isn’t in power, aristocracy and nobility takes advantage to advance in power and authority Three families and their supporters fought over power in France Catherine de Medici’s job: play the families against each other, without seeming to favor any, to keep a balance of power among them and keep them from taking power or the throne reserve real power for the monarchy, in trust for her son, the king, who was still too young to govern and make his own alliances
The Players for Power Bourbon family Montmorency Chatillon family De Guise family Added together with weak young kings and a strong willed and religious queen, the recipe adds up to disaster and death,
Bourbon Family Originally from a family in France whose heiress daughter married a son of Louis IX Since they descended from a king, the family was prominent and had legitimate claims to the throne when the king died without heir. During the wars of religion, several branches of the family played important parts: Louis I de Bourbon, prince of Conde and general in the French army against the Spanish, was a converted Huguenot, and lead Protestant armies, then was captured in 1562. He negotiated peace with the Catholics (Peace of Amboise), which didn’t last, and was killed in battle. At the beginning of the 16 th C, a Bourbon was married to the Queen of Navarre, a small mountain kingdom sitting on the border of Spain in southwestern France; the queen followed Calvinism, and made Navarre Calvinist. In 1572, their son Henry became king of Navarre and leader of the Protestant forces in Western Europe Conde
Montmorency-Chatillon families Prominent rulers of central France Though Catholic, these supported the Protestants because of their political rivalry with the Guises, alliances with the Bourbons Major player: Gaspard de Coligny, a friend of a major Catholic leader (de Guise), he was converted to Protestantism, then used his position as admiral to try to protect them (established a colony in Brazil, but the Portuguese expelled them) Called for religious toleration and reform at death of Henry II, but opposed by his former Catholic friend (Guise) Lead Protestant armies well, he negotiated peace, which didn’t last; He married a Countess and returned to court and got the favor of the king, which worried the (very Catholic) queen mother and regent.
The de Guise family From Lorraine (dukes of Lorraine), created Duke de Guise by Francis I His daughter married James V of Scotland: Mary, Queen of Scots, was their daughter When she came to France as bride of Francis II, the family gained more prestige Through her charm and “love” of the not-quite-all there, King Francis II, Mary wielded more and more influence through him Her uncles, who had high positions in the French government (one was also a cardinal), gained great power in France They lead the Catholic League, organized opponents of the Huguenots in France
Francis II Married to Mary, Queen of Scots, at 4 (She was crowned queen at 9 months.) They married when he was 14, giving the king of France claim to the thrones of Scotland, and later, England. At 6 Mary came to live in France: she was poised and fluent; he stuttered and very short When Francis was 15, his father died, and he was crowned king. Though Catherine was regent, Mary’s uncles, the Guises, held the real power. When Francis was 16, an ear infection turned into an abscess, and he died.
Charles IX (r 1560-74) Became king at age 10 when Francis, his older brother, died; his mother, again, was regent. Married to a princess of Austria with whom he had two daughters; one illegitimate son from his middle class mistress (whose legitimate daughter became mistress to Henry IV), but no male heirs! Involved in St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre
St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre Causes: Peace of St. Germaine en Laye 1570: ended 3 rd war of religion in France Leader, Conde, killed; Henry (Bourbon) of Navarre became leader of the Huguenots Henry and King Charles sign treaty: Catherine and Charles want peace because the war costs too much money and the conflict divides the court Treaty allows Protestants to keep walled cities in the South, hold office in France, and to seal the treaty, Catherine gives her daughter Marguerite (Cath) as wife for Henry of Navarre (Prot) Consequence: Admiral de Coligny again accepted at court, becomes friend with the king, worrying Catherine and arousing resentment of de Guise Marriage of Henry of Navarre and Marguerite 18 Aug 1572 Opposed by Catholics, the pope, Philip II; Parlement of Paris decides to boycott wedding Common people aroused against Protestants and wedding by preaching of super-Catholic Capuchin monks in Paris Economic/Social conditions Resentment over luxurious preparations for the wedding Harvests bad; luxury good prices so high, only very rich can afford them
What started it: Failed assassination attempt on Admiral de Coligny 23 Aug Maurevent Possible instigators? Duke Henry of Lorraine (de Guise) leader of Catholic League, to avenge the murder of Francis de Guise by Coligny 10 years before Duke of Alba, Spanish governor of the Netherlands (under Philip II) because Coligny was planning to invade and take Protestants cities in Flanders; the summer before Coligny had secretly sent troops to back Protestant revolts there Catherine de Medici, threatened by the influence of Coligny over her son, the king; however, she and her son were trying to establish peace between Protestants and Catholics, so probably not
What happened: Protestant leaders accompanied Henry of Navarre to Paris at the marriage of Henry of Navarre to Marguerite (Margot), Catherine’s daughter After much haranguing, Charles agreed to allow Swiss mercenaries, directed by Henry de Guise, to massacre Protestants in Paris for wedding Originally, proposed to allow noble born Protestants to escape: Reportedly, Charles exclaimed, “Kill them all. None should be left to reproach me!” First, de Guise killed Coligny in his sickbed, dragging body into streets Swiss guard dragged Protestant leaders out of the palace, to kill them in the streets Marguerite hid Henry of Navarre so that he would not be killed; he escaped Paris during the massacres, got back to his Protestant forces in the south. Out of control, the populace went wild, killing anyone suspected of having Protestant sympathies The massacre spread throughout the country: usually lower class peasants urged on by religious fanatics, rose up and killed Protestant middle class, peasants, etc. Estimates: 2,000 killed in Paris (gates locked so they couldn’t escape); probably around 10,000 killed in the countryside, but estimates range from 2,000 to 100,000
Henry III (ruled 1574-89) Ruled Lithuania until his brother Charles died Edict of Beaulieu Minor concessions to Protestants Catholic Henry de Guise formed the Catholic League (religious and military party: supported by Catherine, the pope, Philip II of Spain) Henry III accepted the League and made himself the head BUT Assassination of Henry de Guise When Henry III’s younger brother died, next heir under Salic Law was Henry of Navarre (head of the Protestants!) Henry III had no children: probably gay; adopted very effeminate dress and ran around with homosexuals De Guise insisted on Henry III making a proclamation outlawing Protestantism and disinheriting Henry of Navarre Henry III had de Guise assassinated: he invited him and his Cardinal brother, Louis, to await him in the palace, then had guards kill Henry (Louis the next day); he imprisoned de Guise’s son so no Guise heir could claim the throne. War of Three Henries (Henry III, Henry de Guise (dead), Henry of Navarre) Inflamed by the assassination, the Catholic League rose up against Henry III, proclaiming Charles Bourbon (another imprisoned cardinal) as Charles X Henry III was forced to flee Paris and ally with Henry of Navarre With both Henrys’ armies, they were besieging Paris when a crazed Dominican monk, Jacques Clement, with false papers, pretended to have messages for Henry III, got access, and stabbed him to death.
Henry IV (Bourbon) Called Henry the Great (Henri le Grand), le bon roi Henri ("good king Henry") or le Vert galant ("the Green gallant"). Baptized Catholic, he converted to Calvinism, his mother’s religion. When Henry III died, he was next in line to become king. The Catholic League opposed him, proclaiming a distant relative,
Henry IV: Winning the Monarchy Catholic League with support from outside, especially from Spain, was strong enough to force Henry IV to stay to the south Henry had to set about winning his kingdom by military conquest, aided by money and troops bestowed by Elizabeth of England. The League proclaimed Henry's Catholic uncle, the Cardinal de Bourbon King as Charles X, but the Cardinal himself was Henry's prisoner. Henry was victorious in battles against the League, but failed to take Paris. After the death of the old Cardinal (Charles de Bourbon), the League could not agree on a new candidate. While some supported various Guise candidates, the strongest candidate was probably Isabella, the daughter of Philip II, whose mother Elisabeth had been the eldest daughter of Henry II The publicity about her candidacy and violation of the Salic Law hurt the League, which thus became suspect as agents of the foreign Spanish; Nevertheless Henry was unable to take control of Paris, Catholic, opposing a Protestant With the encouragement of the great love of his life, Gabrielle d’Estrees, on Henry declared that Paris vaut bien une messe ("Paris is well worth a Mass") and permanently renounced Protestantism Thus earning the resentment of his former ally Queen Elizabeth. But it secured for him the allegiance of the vast majority of his subjects He was crowned King of France in 1553 and proceeded to make peace with all of his subjects
Accomplishments: Improved the lives of all “a chicken in the pot every Sunday” was one of his aims Through Sully, his right hand man, promoted agriculture: he drained swamps for new crop land, reformed taxes to take burdens from the peasants Improved the economy Made peace with Catholics and Protestants and threatened or bought off noble opponents with titles and land; no wars = prosperity Encouraged education for all. Created College Royale (now a military school) Saved forests from devastation, built new system of tree-lined highways. Renewed Paris and undertook public works, such as Pont Neuf in Paris, new canals. Encouraged exploration and colonization Financed expeditions of Champlain to Americas, which allowed France to claim territory in Canada 1598: Pronounced Edict of Nantes Sustained Catholicism as the established religion of France: Protestants gained no exemption from paying the tithe, observing Catholic holidays and marriage restrictions Protestant freedom of worship, but only in specified geographic areas, outside city walls. Only Protestant and Catholic coexistence; the Edict did not include Jews or Muslims. In fact, France expelled its Muslims in 1610.
Death of Henry IV 1610, as prepared to move vs Habsburgs, King Henry IV was assassinated in Paris by Francis Ravaillac, who stabbed the king to death while he rode in his coach. Succession Never had children with Marguerite of Valois, and eventually had the marriage annulled so he could marry another In 1600 he married Marie de’ Medici, daughter of an Austrian princess and granddaughter of the Holy Roman Emperor. (She also brought with her a sizeable dowry.) Not very bright, but very stubborn, she feuded with the King’s chief mistress, Henriette d’Entragues She never escaped the charge of having known of the king's assassination; her best friend was Mme.d’Epernono, who could have, but did not ward off Ravaillac's blow, and who was proved to have known the murderer personally for a long time. She served as regent to their 9-year-old son, Louis XIII, until 1617. His mistresses included Gabrielle d’Estrees and Henriette d’Entragues.
England: Golden Age Henry VIII progeny Katherine of Aragon --- Mary I Ann Boleyn -- Elizabeth I Jane Seymour – Edward VI
Edward VI (r 1547-53) Though king at the age of 10, he was really a figurehead. His Seymour uncles battled with and ultimately lost the Protectorship to the ambitious John Dudley, duke of Northumberland. Edward demonstrated impressive piety and intelligence. Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer, moved the English church, with Edward’s acquiescence, toward Protestantism Concerned about the need for a statement of belief for the English church, Cranmer compiled and wrote 42 Articles, a summary of Anglican doctrine that lead the Church of England in a more Protestant direction. He was also responsible for the Book of Common Prayer, which broke from Catholic doctrine It toned down the idea of transubstantiation in the Eucharist It removed prayers for the dead, and other ceremonies, including the admixture of water with the wine at Communion, the exorcism. Cranmer also encouraged the destruction of images, in imitation of the followers of Calvin and Zwingli. Edward died an agonizing death at 15, possibly from TB & measles (Dudley kept him alive with arsenic). Northumberland (Dudley) persuaded him to leave the throne to his Protestant cousin, Lady Jane Grey, declaring both Mary and Elizabeth “illegitimate” (against his dad’s declarations +he a minor and not eligible to make such pronouncements) This decision (because Mary was Catholic, and Elizabeth too strong politically) began one of the most tragic tales of Tudor England.
Lady Jane Gray Descended from sister of Henry VIII; fourth in line for throne, after her mother. Dudley persuaded her parents to marry her off to his son, Guildford, thus insuring his continued influence on the throne. Jane didn’t like Guildford, but didn’t want a Catholic monarch (Mary) either; she married, then when Edward died, accepted the crown, but was only a figurehead for Dudley. She reigned 9 days. When Edward died, Dudley moved to capture Elizabeth and Mary to silence opposition to Jane’s monarchy, but Mary escaped and gathered support. (She was popular; the people thought her mother had been badly treated.) Nobles, seeing the way things were going, deserted Dudley. He tried to march with an army + Jane’s dad as general, but Jane cried and her dad refused. Then town after town declared Mary queen. Even Jane’s dad pledged to support Mary. Mary is declared queen; Jane and her followers are all traitors.
Eventually only Jane, her father in law and husband were left, imprisoned in the tower. Though Mary did not want to execute her, Mary’s advisors pointed out that Jane had been consecrated queen and could be a rallying point for Protestants to depose Mary. After the execution of Dudley and some of the nobles that supported Jane, Jane, along with Dudley’s 4 sons, were tried and plead guilty to treason. The four were sentenced to die by being drawn and quartered, and were executed. Jane’s parents joined the Catholic church and were accepted in court, becoming some of Mary’s favorites. They were assured that though Jane had been sentenced to death, Mary had no intention to execute her. However, when Mary announced plans to marry the Catholic Spanish King Philip II, the whole country rebelled. Jane’s father tried to join the rebellion: Jane’s fate was set. Mary’s advisors urged her to execute Jane, because she was a rallying point for the rebels. So Mary had Jane beheaded, believing the girl was innocent and merely manipulated.
Mary Tudor (r 1553-58) Supported as queen by Catholics and by most British, who felt she and her mother were badly treated by Henry VIII BUT she believed the support was not only for her as queen, but for her to return England to the fold of Catholicism She was urged to marry quickly and provide a Catholic heir, since she was already 37; she chose Philip of Spain, her cousin’s son, since she liked the thought of marrying him, a widower of 26, and he was the champion of Catholicism
Bad decision: The leaders of England were appalled: she was likely to die heir-less, her husband would inherit the kingdom; Britain would be one more part of the Spanish Empire Conspiracies abounded against the marriage: Wyatt’s rebellion ended with Jane Gray’s execution and defeat of the rebels outside London’s gates Mary, feeling picked upon, imprisoned Elizabeth, as a possible focus for rebellions of her Protestant subjects Consequences of the marriage Purely political for Philip; he lived with Mary for 14 months, then found an excuse to leave England. Mary, in love with Philip, thought herself pregnant, but it was a hysterical pregnancy or tumor, instead. (Interestingly, Philip had Elizabeth released from the tower, providing she lived quietly in a castle away from London, because he wanted her to look on him favorably if Mary died.) Philip persuaded Mary to join Spain in the Italian wars against France. However, the pope sided with France. The Spanish forces were defeated. England lost Calais to France, making Philip and Mary even more unpopular. “Bloody Mary” Mary persuaded Parliament to repeal the Protestant religious laws passed by Edward and Henry before her. The agreement took several years, and major concessions: thousands of acres of monastery lands confiscated under Henry were not returned to the monasteries; new landowners created by this distribution remained influential. Mary I put in Catholic officials at the top of the English Church, and had many of Edward’s church officials, including Thomas Cranmer, executed. In all she had 283 Protestants burned at the stake, earning her nickname “Bloody” Mary After another false pregnancy, Mary died at 42, probably of ovarian cancer.
Acceptance Problems Ascension confusion/dispute Legitimacy Personal image (turned liabilities to assets) Young (25), Female Out of power stream during Mary Tudor's reign Virgin—used hints of marriage as manipulation both domestically and with foreign Coronation Ring on marriage finger “as to the people of England” Visits to the Lords "Good Queen Bess"
Scottish Problems Independent since 1314, resentful of England Mary Queen of Scots Mother = sister of Henry VIII John Knox’s religious movement Husband, Francis II, French king, dies, and she returns to Scotland Not well liked in Scotland (Catholic, seemed French, exiled Knox, others) Married Darnley and had a son, and then Darnley killed (syphilitic, drunk) Mary married Bothwell, forced to abdicate (refuge in England) 20 years in prison there: numerous plots of Catholics vs Elizabeth Casket letters: “Mary, Mary”; execution 1587 James VI (Stuart) of Scotland (her son raised by Presbyterians)
John Knox Trained as a Catholic priest, he became converted to Protestantism, objecting to the form of Communion, the religious heirarchy Escaped to France, captured and served as a galley slave, which hurt his health permanently Lived in Britain and Germany, preaching in Protestant faits Scottish religious reformer, credited with bringing the Reformation to Scotland Calvinistic, not part of English church Protestantism was adopted by Parliament as the Scottish national religion. Knox, assisted by five other ministers, formulated the confession of faith for the Scottish church The First Book of Discipline: priests were replaced by ministers, proposal to replace bishops with superintendents implemented later Basis for Presbyterian church First Blast against the Monstrous Regiment of Women, Written against Mary Tudor, queen of England women were not fit to rule, "idolatresses" who set reason aside and ruled by their emotions. This view of female psychology made Knox offensive to Mary Queen of Scots and to Elizabeth.. Wrote that it was legitimate for the people to overthrow and even execute female rulers because of precedents in the Bible, (Jezebel, for instance) She had him tried with heresy and arrested, but he defended himself and was acquitted.
Money Problems Lords support Elizabeth's visits Stopped the wars Promoted industry and trade Privateers Sir Francis Drake Don’t forget his voyages of exploration: claim to N. American lands
French Problems English war with France In alliance with Spain (instigated by Mary Tudor m to Philip II) Sided with Catholic League against Henry IV Complication: Mary, Queen of Scots, once married to French king; therefore, England open to invasion from France AND Scotland. Elizabeth drew out, instead secretly supported Henry IV vs Catholic League (backed by Philip II)
Spanish Problems Rivalry with England Intense because of religious differences Philip II Flanders interference Fought to keep the Low Countries Catholic England and Spain officially at war from 1585 after years of underhanded conflict, the war lasting until the Queen's death. Philip died in 1598, but his son, Philip III, continued the war, even though he did so half heartedly. Privateers (“sea dogs”) Inroads into shipments of gold and silver from New Spain (Americas) Endorsed by the queen, who took a share of their booty: income to the throne more than legitimate taxes (favorite: Drake; Raleigh sponsored, used money for his colonies) Battle with Spanish Armada (1588) Attempts at Colonization: Roanoke
Religious Problems Protestant versus Catholic division Reaction to undo all of Mary's acts Parliament dissolved ties to Catholicism 39 Articles: Ch of England performances Elizabeth’s policy: external acquiescence to Ch of England (attend church or fines); no concern with private beliefs UNLESS pushed; “I desire to open a window to no man’s conscience” Puritan zealousness Elizabeth’s compromises with Catholics offended them. Changes in Book of Common Prayer so Catholics could worship in C of England Vestments of priests ornate like Catholics (Puritans called it “popery”; Elizabeth liked them
English Problems Vision for the country Merchants Seafarers Promotion of the Golden Age Prosperity and leisure Arts Language Drama
Spain/Germany: Decline of Habsburg Power Charles V Background: g.son Ferdinand and Isabella and of HRE Maximilian Becoming Emperor of HRE: Bribed with loans from Fuggers (over Francis I, Henry VIII) Greatest empire since Charlemagne (Spain, Naples, Sicilly, Sardinia, Burgundy, Netherlands, Austria, Germany, Hungary) Aim: keep them and keep them Catholic Italian Wars (Habsburg-Valois Wars) Defeated Charles VIII, Louis XII in Italy; Francis I tries to take revenge, taken prisoner, French forced to give up claims to Italy and Burgundy; pope allies to fight Charles Spanish defeat Fr/pope alliance; sacks Rome and captures pope; pope forced to side with Charles vs France and Turks; Further fighting with France over Flanders; Henry III fights in Italy; Spain defeats him; Charles rules all Italy except Venice Treaty of Cateau/Cambresis ends Habsburg-Valois wars
Charles V Continued Standing against the Turks Suleiman the Magnificent, greatest sultan of the Ottoman Empire Ottomans advanced to capture most of Hungary (HRE), killing 20,000 of its inhabitants Suleiman tries to capture Vienna (siege of Vienna); stopped by Charles’s armies Counterattack: Charles captures Tunis, in N. Africa Champion of Catholicism in the face of Reformation pressures Presides at Diet of Wurms Fought Schmalkaldic Wars: result Peace of Augsburg (cuius regio) Abdication At 55, physically old: lower lip extended; jaw out so far, couldn’t chew or speak clearly, most teeth gone, had to be held up to walk; suffered from ulcers, gout, asthma, indigestion, arthritis; retired to monastery Divided empire Ferdinand I, brother to Charles, got HRE Philip II (Charles’s son) got Spain, the Low Countries (Flanders and Netherlands), and Spanish America)
Philip II (r. 1556-98) Empire’s economic troubles Charles left 6 million ducats income; 74 million dollar deficit (wars); debt 8 x annual income Conquistadores: Pizarro said, “Everything comes down to one thing: money and more money.” Income = 1/5 of all metals from America Spain—inflation from gold and silver coming in from Americas Champion vs Turks Battle of Lepanto: 5 hour naval battle off W Greece between Holy League (HRE, pope, Venice, Genoa, others) and Ottoman fleet Commanded by don Juan of Austria, Philip’s illegitimate brother Holy League victory; ended Turkish expansion in the Mediterranean
Philip II: Champion of Counter Reformation Against England Armada; 2 nd attempt 9 years later, but Philip died Netherlands Cardinal Granville checked Protestants by reforming Catholic abuses 17 Netherlands provinces joyeuse entrée with self government and own laws and tax systems Spanish took independence from the 17 Netherlands provinces, replaced them with Catholic control, laws, taxes; missionaries and Inquisition to convert back Protestants Persecution and punishment for those who didn’t comply
Netherlands Revolt Consequences of Spanish repression: Rebellion against laws and governors Protestants fled Low Countries for England and Germany Iconoclasm—wave of violence against images in churches (Calvinistic) Duke of Alba sent with 10,000 Spanish troops to restore order Spanish atrocities under Alba spurred rebellion Repression with execution of over 1,000 rebels Alba established Council of Troubles known to the people as the Council of Blood) to judge those involved with the rebellion and the iconoclasm. Several changes of leadership; finally Duke of Parma came to negotiate instead of fight BUT Spanish Fury (“Sack of Antwerp”) Spanish troops unpaid; Spain declaring bankruptcy Siege outside Antwerp (now Belgium); Spanish commander died Troops decide to desert, take their pay—sack Antwerp with much rapine and death Ended peaceful negotiation
Netherlands Rebellion Continued William (Nassau) of Orange (who was actually Catholic): champion of rebels) Had been brought up before Alba’s Council; refused to appear, so declared an outlaw, stripped of lands and office Lead the troops against Spanish: many citied opened their gates to his forces Spanish siege of Leiden won when Dutch cut dikes: Wm established university there The Pacification of Ghent signed in 1576, was an alliance of the provinces of the Netherlands to drive out the Spanish The northern (Protestant) and southern (Catholic) provinces of the Low Countries put aside religious difference, united in revolt against the Spanish First major expression of the Netherlands' national self-consciousness. Called for the expulsion of Spanish troops from the Low Countries, the restoration of provincial and local prerogatives, and an end to the persecution of Calvinists
Rest of the Story The alliance breaks apart: Calvinists more radical, tried to forbid Catholicism in their areas of control. William was opposed for personal and political reasons, wanting freedom of religion, and the support of the less radical Protestants and Catholics Treaty of Arras 1579 several southern provinces, unhappy with William's radical following, Agreed to accept Spanish regent, Duke of Parma Final Peace: Union of Utrecht Five northern provinces of the Low Countries confirmed their unity William opposed the Union, hoping to unite all provinces. Nevertheless, later, he formally gave his support. The Union of Utrecht = de facto constitution for Holland, only formal connection between the Dutch provinces until 1795. Later accepted by Parma: Holland would be independent; what later became Belgium would remain in Spanish control
Decline of Spain : from heights of power in 1588 to 2 nd rate nation in 1715 Social Traditions : Continuation of inheritance laws—all children of nobility = nobility with titles; divide estates; can’t work or participate in commerce Best and brightest going into powerful church, not business, agriculture, nor government Agricultural crisis Expulsion of moriscos—no one to work the land in South = wilderness Replacement of cattle by sheep on Meseta Gradual Transformation of the Americas Mexico and Peru develop own industry while Spain busy on continent Economy with mineral, agriculture, industrial wealth, competes with Spain Defeat of the Armada Loss of prestige Loss of investment Though Philip begins another, Spain bankrupted
Fall of the Habsburgs in Spain Increasing Economic Weakness of Spain Inflation from gold and silver depreciating currency while prices of goods rose Debt begun by Charles V with purchase of HRE title and with wars and building programs continued with Philip II and continued to rise Bankruptcy of government in face of rising expenses of Netherlands wars Growth of English and Dutch Overseas Trade Spanish monopolies in the Americas weakened, broken illegally Dutch and English colonies throughout the world competing with Spain, no longer dominant Trade fell 60% between 1610-1650 Weakened leadership: excessive inbreeding of Habsburgs Philip III: weaker than father, though carried on Philip IV: weaker yet Charles II: complete imbecile; Habsburg features heightened
The Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648) General information: Last, most destructive of all wars of religion Catholic vs Protestant AND Calvinist vs Lutheran Sacrifice all for religion: belief + hatred; ironic since all Christian Involved all of W.Europe, including Denmark and Sweden Changed alliances of Europe and helped shape the Europe of today
Causes: Peace of Augsburg Assured sovereignty of small HRE regions: own taxes, own money, tolls and customs duties Travel and trade harder and harder Holy Roman Empire Small principalities, etc afraid of growing power of empire Feared intimidation, take over, etc. by Charles or Philip Sought help from other European powers against emperor Special fear: Catholic emperors would force Catholicism on Protestant regions
Foreign Nations Involvement Because of: Spain: Spanish Netherlands was on the western border of the German states. (The Netherlands had revolted against the Spanish domination, gaining independence.) France: the German states because were weak neighbors, compared to the Habsburgs realms which surrounded France. Sweden and Denmark wanted control over northern German states bordering the Baltic Sea.
Leadup: Catholic Maximilian of Bavaria His first marriage was childless. By his second wife, Maria Ann of Austria (daughter of his sister + HRE Ferdinand II), two sons, with the oldest, Ferdinand Maria, succeeding him. Weak in health, Maximilian had high ambitions, tenacious and resourceful Ablest prince of time, he tried to prevent Germany from being battleground of Europe; rigidly Catholic, but not always subservient to church. Refrained from interference in German politics until entrusted executing the imperial ban against a Protestant stronghold. His troops occupied the city, and he moved to restore Catholicism. Protestant princes, alarmed at this action, formed the Protestant Union Maximilian, in answer, helped establish the Catholic League. Under his leadership organized army, but strictly defensive: he refused to allow the League to become a tool of Habsburgs. Dissensions among colleagues led the duke to resign, but trouble brought about his return to the League about two years later, opposing Frederick IV of the Palatinate and his Protestant allies.
Calvinism, Fredericks and the Palatinate Palatinate: territory along Rhine (ruled by count palatine) Hohenstaufen family: electors (Golden Bull) of HRE Frederick III, a staunch Calvinist, inherited the Palatinate; it became one of the major centers of Calvinism supporting Calvinist rebellions in both the Netherlands and France; It allied with England, Netherlands, Henry of Navarre in religious wars Frederick III's grandson, Frederick IV, and his adviser, Christian of Anhalt, founded the Evangelical Union of Protestant states in 1608. In 1619 Elector Frederick V (the "Winter King") (the son-in-law of King James I of England) accepted the throne of Bohemia from the Bohemian estates. In charge of Protestant forces (Evangelical Union of Protestant states)
The Bohemian Period (1618-1625): Revolt vs the Empire Ferdinand II elected to become king of Bohemia and of Hungary against Protestant wishes educated to be staunchly Catholic by the Jesuits Immediately revoked religious freedom from Bohemian Protestants. “Defenestration of Prague”: F. sent two Catholic counsellors to rule at castle in Prague (Bohemian capital): Mock trial: Calvinists through them out of window (50 feet up) Catholic story: angels rescued: Protestant story: landed in pile of manure Angry Bohemians declared the Calvinist elector Palatine, Frederick V their overlord. Became part of Evangelical Union he headed Ferdinand was compelled to call on his nephew, King Philip IV of Spain for assistance. With Spanish help Ferdinand’s Army had managed to subdue and conquer the Palatinate, and re-catholicize Bohemia. Frederick V defeated by Emperor Ferdinand II allied with Maximilian and Philip IV at the Battle of White Mountain in 1620 Spanish and Bavarian troops soon occupied the Palatinate itself. Emperor tried to force Catholicism on this Calvinistic region. In 1623, Frederick was put under the ban of the Empire, and his territories and Electoral dignity granted to the Duke (now Elector) of Bavaria, Maximilian I Ferdinand II
The Danish Period (1625-29): The Lutheran King Christian IV of Denmark, wished to extend Danish influence in the HRE. Helped neighboring Protestant Saxony vs HRE Feared for sovereignty of Denmark if Saxony under HRE dictatorship Lead Protestant forces against Catholic Ferdinand’s Financed by Richelieu of France (Catholic) & Dutch against HRE power Christian was quickly humiliated and forced to retreat by Ferdinand. Ferdinand hired Albrecht of Wallenstein as a mercenary. Wallenstein was a Bohemian nobleman who had made himself rich from the confiscated estates of his countrymen. pledged his army of between 30,000 and 100,000 soldiers to Ferdinand II in return for the right to plunder the captured territories However, By 1628 Wallenstein commanded as army of 100,000 and was no longer under Ferdinand’s control. Victory over Christian took him to the gates of the capital of Denmark.. However, without a navy, couldn’t conquer completely, and with war too expensive, Ferdinand settled. Christian agreed to abandon his support of Protestants if could keep Denmark. Edict of Restitution Ferdinand II wanted to take back the Lutheran holdings that were, according to the Peace of Augsburg, rightfully the possession of the Catholic Church. two Archbishoprics, sixteen bishoprics, and hundreds of monasteries. It looked like Catholics had won and the war was over, BUT
The Swedish Period (1630-35): Gustavus Adolphus of the strongly Lutheran Sweden came to rescue of Protestant forces Worried about HRE aggression vs Sweden Protestant, wanted to support others Wanted economic influence with German cities bankrolled by France and the Dutch, and allies with Brandenburg and Saxony, decided to join the fight. Adolphus, a military genius, won a smashing victory at Breitenfeld in 1630. Ferdinand fired Wallenstein, then reinstated him vs Gustavus Adolphus
Adolphus’s army met Wallenstein’s at the Battle of Lutzen, Nov. 1632. Swedish forces won, but Gustavus Adolphus killed in battle (see illustration) Without Swedish leadership, the Protestant forces lost battles Ferdinand had Wallenstein assassinated in 1634. W was negotiating peace with Protestants Ferdinand feared he might desert to Protestants Swedish portion of war ends with Peace of Prague Delayed enforcement of the Edict of Restitution for 40 years United army of emperor with armies of German states to one army of the Holy Roman Empire Forbade German princes to have alliances between them or with foreign powers. Gave amnesty to any ruler who took up arms against the Emperor after arrival of the Swedes in 1630.
The Swedish-French Period (1635-48): The Peace of Prague didn’t satisfy the French, especially Cardinal Richelieu, chief advisor to Louis XIII (Henry IV’s son) Habsburgs still powerful, with territory on France’s eastern border and north in the Low Countries The French (Catholic) openly entered the war, ironically, on side of Protestants. The war lasted 13 years after that, warring just for the sake of warfare. With the Dutch and Protestant German forces, France attacked HRE imperial armies with much success Habsburgs invaded eastern France in retaliation, but were beaten The combined Protestant forces defeated imperial armies The fighting ended with the deaths of Richelieu and Louis XIII By the time that peace talks began in 1644, an estimated 1/3 of the German population had died, with economy and cities in ruins. Civilian deaths due to armed conflict, famine and disease. Much of the destruction of civilian lives and property was caused by the cruelty and greed of mercenaries.
Treaty of Westphalia Brought all hostilities in HRE to an end. It rescinded Ferdinand’s Edict of Restitution and firmly reasserted the major feature of the religious settlement of the Peace of Augsburg. Cuius regio Gave the Calvinists their long-sought legal recognition.
Treaty of the Pyrenees France and Spain remained at war outside the HRE after the Treaty of Westphalia until 1659, when French victories forced on the Spanish the Treaty of Pyrenees, making France the dominant European power.