Presentation on theme: "Should a political leader make personal sacrifices for success of his or her country? What sacrifices should be expected if you become a head of state?"— Presentation transcript:
Should a political leader make personal sacrifices for success of his or her country? What sacrifices should be expected if you become a head of state?
The Age of Absolutism 1648-1763 What does the term ABSOLUTE mean? –unlimited and pure So absolutism means: –The rule of absolute monarchs Who were rulers that had complete control of their countries.
You Never Know…. What issues have caused a great deal of controversy in the United States in the last few years? –It’s a bit crazy to think about the implications these decisions could have on our history!
Lets Start with the French! The Valois Dynasty ruled France but its control was tenuous: –Henry II died (1559), leaving four sons, three of which ruled France for a very short period of time. –Henry II’s wife, Catherine de Medici, was the true head of France. She made all important decisions, despite the fact her son’s were the actual monarchs.
French Civil War…. France was split between the Protestants (Huguenots) and Catholics. –The two most powerful families (after the Valois) were the Bourbons and the Guises. The Bourbons were Protestant The Guises were Catholic –Both wanted to take over control of the French monarchy –The hatred between these two families sparked many civil wars between 1562 and 1589. –St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre (Aug. 24 th, 1572) Protestants were dragged in to the streets of Paris and killed Killing went on for a month all over France – 12,000 Protestants were killed. Catherine de Medici contributed (or even started) to the massacre by plotting the assassination of her son’s (Charles IX) closest advisor (the Admiral de Coligny) who was a Protestant.
Blood thicker than Water? French nobility was split on who to support. It appeared that Catholicism would prevail! –Spain’s Phillip II supported the Guise family with military support Inside the borders of France! Frenchmen of all religions felt a nationalistic urge for unity –Politiques – desired peace for France Catherine De Medici died in 1589 –Henry III ordered the death of the Duke of Guise and his brother to protect his throne. –A Dominican Friar named Jacques Clement stabbed Henry III to death.
Henry of Navarre Henry IV of Navarre eventually took the throne of France. –Henry had it all – he was hansom, brave, strong, and decisive. He was also a Protestant, as he was the head of the House of Bourbon. –But, to save his life, he had pretended to be Catholic during the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre. –To heal his war-torn country, Henry converted to Catholicism. –Edict of Nantes – Huguenots could worship in peace everywhere but in Paris –Rather than continue to fight the nobles who disagreed with him, he paid them off –He made the economy of France more efficient and helped to create a surplus in the treasury. –He wanted to make France so prosperous that every peasant would have a chicken in the pot.
BUT! He had his marriage to his wife (a Valois) annulled. He married Marie de Medici –They had 6 children. Their first son was Louis XIII He also fathered 8 more illegitimate children with a variety of mistresses! –Does it matter? Despite the peace he brought to France, he was killed by a fanatic, who stabbed him to death in 1610. –Louis XIII was 9 when he became king!
The Cardinal that Would be King Cardinal Richelieu was appointed to be the advisor for Henry’s son, Louis XIII, who was only 9 when he became king –Richelieu became the effective leader of France He wanted to consolidate the power of the Bourbon house and make France the strongest country in Europe –He had three things he thought weakened France Virtual independence of the Huguenot cities –Revoked the privilege to worship freely The power of the nobility –Had government officials from the middle class (intendants) who were loyal to the King –There was no need for the nobility’s military or politics (BEGINNING OF ABSOLUTE MONARCHS!) The danger of invasion from Austria –30 Years War