Presentation on theme: " Huguenots- (French Protestants)- watched by French monarchs as early as 1520 when protestant ideas arrived in France Huguenot persecution became policy."— Presentation transcript:
Huguenots- (French Protestants)- watched by French monarchs as early as 1520 when protestant ideas arrived in France Huguenot persecution became policy under Henry II and Continued until Henry IV (Henry of Navarre) took throne in 1789 Catherine de Medicis- regent for Charles IX- sought allies among protestants January Edict- granted Protestants Freedom to worship outside towns and hold synods
March 1562- Duke of Guise Family led a massacre on the Huguenots Huguenots and Protestant allies fought against Guise Faction. Catherine of Medicis aligns with Guise family. Coligny leader of Protestant faction 1572- St. Barholomew’s Day Massacre- plot against Coligny and Huguenots. 3,000 Huguenots killed on this day. Next 3 days, 20,000 Huguenots executed.
Led by Henry III May 1576 Grants complete religious and civil freedom to Huguenots Henry III murdered and Henry IV (Henry of Navarre) rises to Throne and converts to Catholicism Proclaims a religious settlement called Edict of Nantes of April 13, 1598: Recognizes Huguenots Rights including freedom of worship, right to assembly and series of other liberties
Philip: Spain Annexed Portugal and gain access to Empires in Africa, India, and Americas Ruler of Habsburg Lands of Bohemia, Austria, and Hungry
Philip II attempts but fails to Conquer Netherlands Initial uprising is put down by the Duke of Alba and the Catholic League Resistance to Philip Led by William of Orange after 1577 Pacification of Ghent- 1576 Catholic and Protestants forces come together against Spain. 1585- Elizabeth Commits forces to Netherlands Twelve Years Truce 1609 - gave northern providence independence Peace of Westphalia of 1648- formally recognizes Twelve Years Truce
Mary I (Mary Tutor, Bloody Mary) attempts to restore Catholicism Elizabeth I (Mary’s Half Sister) undoes Catholic Restoration; Passes Act of Supremacy that asserts Elizabeth as Supreme Governor of Religious and Secular Affairs England Allies with France in 1571. English Pirates, Francis Drake and John Hawkins, preying on Spanish Ships Mary Stuart (Queen of Scotts)- Catholic, French royal and legitimate heir to throne was executed by Elizabeth because of perceived threat Execution of Mary Angers Spanish Philip II orders Spanish Armada (Fleet of Ships) to prepare for War in 1588 Spanish Armada is destroyed by English Encourages European Protestants
Bohemian Period- Calvinists Demands more freedom for Catholic Habsburgs ruler Ferdinand. Protestant Nobility Responded by throwing two of Ferdinand’s Regents out window called defenestration of Prague Danish Period- King Christian of Denmark attempts to bring Protestantism to Germany and was forced to retreat by Maximilian. In 1629 Ferdinand outlaws Calvinism by issuing Edict of Restitution Swedish Period- Military tactics of King Gustavus Adlophus of Sweden help protestants win battle of Breitenfield. The Swedish refuse to join Peace of Prague Agreement: Comprise between German Protestant States and Ferdinand Allows for Kings to Choose official religion
Swedish French Period- involved French, Swedish, and Spanish Soldiers wreaking havoc in Germany. Most destructive point of the War. Religious issues become secondary to Political ones Treaty of Westphalia of 1648: Stops Ferdinand’s Edict of Restitution Recognizes Calvinists. Creates The independence of Swiss Confederacy and provinces of Holland German princes acknowledged as the supreme rulers over principalities. Treaty broaden legal status of Protestantism in the realm, but perpetuated Germany’s internal division of political weakness.