Presentation on theme: "The Netherlands Group of 17 provinces ruled by Philip II, the King of Spain 1559 Philip left the Netherlands and put his half-sister Margaret of Parma."— Presentation transcript:
The Netherlands Group of 17 provinces ruled by Philip II, the King of Spain 1559 Philip left the Netherlands and put his half-sister Margaret of Parma in charge with help from a special council
Cardinal Granvelle 1561 headed the council to control Netherlands Hoped to check Protestant gains through internal church reforms Wanted to break the local autonomy of the 17 stadtholders of each province Wanted to establish a strong centralized gov’t from Madrid
Calvinism in the Netherlands Netherlands had many merchant cities—Antwerp, most magnificent and independent and a Calvinist stronghold By 1560, cities housed many Calvinists, some who fled from France William of Orange (“the Silent”) – opposed Phillip II’s and Cardinal Greenville’s persecution of Dutch Calvinists –Returns from exile in Germany to lead the Dutch
Due to the rising tide of Calvinism, Cardinal Granvelle was removed from office in 1564 Philip II began to insist the decrees of the Council of Trent be enforced in Netherlands Compromise of 1564— agreement between Dutch nobles to resist Spain –led to rebellion
Duke of Alba The “sea beggars” revolt is violently put down by Philip II ‘s, Duke of Alba who executes thousands of suspected heretics Alba established the “Council of Blood” (Troubles) to execute Calvinists Spanish levied new taxes against the Dutch to pay for suppressing the revolt Tens of thousands fled the Netherlands during Alba’s cruel six year rule.
William of Orange Returns Orange was in exile during Alba’s reign He returned to set up his movement in his three provinces of Holland, Zeeland, and Utrecht The “sea beggars” sparked rebellions against Alba and his successor, Don Luis de Requesens (1573)
Pacification of Ghent Spanish Fury – After Requesen’s death, Spanish mercenaries leave 7,000 people dead in Antwerp on November 4, 1576 Nov. 8, 1576--the massacre unites Protestant and Catholic Netherlands versus Spain under the Pacification of Ghent
Union of Arras and Union of Utrecht Two groups: Union of Utrecht (Calvinists) in the north and Union of Arras (Catholic) in the south 1577 Spain signs humiliating Perpetual Edict calling for the removal of all Spanish troops from the Netherlands William of Orange becomes leader of the country Union of Arras (southern Catholic) makes peace with Spain fearing Protestant domination—will be called the Spanish Netherlands Union of Utrecht (northern Protestant) formed to oppose Union of Arras
Netherlands Independence Philip II declared William of Orange an outlaw and placed a 25,000 crown bounty on his head Orange responded with publicly denouncing Philip as a heathen tyrant in his Apology William of Orange is assassinated and replaced by his son Maurice who with the help of England and France finally defeat Spain –The Union of Utrecht becomes the United Netherlands Spain first signs truce in 1609 and recognizes full independence of the Netherlands in 1648 with the Peace of Westphalia
Summation: Revolt in the Netherlands Throughout the conflict, the Dutch received naval assistance from Elizabeth I’s “sea dogs” against the Spanish Armada When England defeats the Spanish Armada, Spain, exhausted, is forced to concede control of the Northern provinces, but the Southern provinces settle with Spain for protection
What was the role of religion in the Dutch Revolt? Discuss the causes of the Dutch revolt against Spain. What were William Of Orange's aims and methods during the Dutch Revolt? What were the consequences for the emerging power of England? Was the 16th century Dutch revolt successful? What were its outcomes?