The Valois Family in France: The Beginning of the End CI, Q 35 The young lion shall overcome the older one, on the field of combat in single battle, He shall pierce his eyes in a golden cage, Two forces one, then he shall die a cruel death. -Nostradamus
Henry II Persecuted Huguenots in France War with Holy Roman Empire 1551-1559 over control of Italy Plotted to make his eldest son king of Scotland and possibly England
Henry II died when a lance pierced his eye. He was the last powerful Valois King. Three weak sons followed: Francis II (r.1559-1560) – king at 15 Charles IX (r.1560-1574) – king at 10 Henry III (r.1574-1598) – king at 23 Catherine de Medici controlled her sons: Developed a reputation for cruelty Played both sides in the civil war (Protestant & Catholic)
Catherine de Medici Father was Lorenzo de' Medici ruler of Florence during the Renaissance Both parents died while she was an infant, so she was raised by her uncle, Pope Clement VII
Francis II & his Wife, Mary Stuart (Mary Queen of Scots)
King at the age of 15, Francis was old enough to rule independently, but made all his royal decisions with Catherine’s influence. The Duke of Guise- whose niece, Mary, Queen of Scots, had married Francis the year before- seized power after Henry II’s death and quickly moved into the Louvre Palace with the young couple. He attempted to control the royal couple. He also continued the persecution of the Huguenots in northern France.
The French Civil War The two sides: Guise family led Catholics in East & North France (supported by Spain) Bourbon family led Huguenots in South & West (supported by England) Both were fighting for religion & later the royal inheritance
Charles IX T ook the throne at the age of 10. Through legal arrangements, Catherine de Medici becomes regent of the king and governor of France. Charles never rules independently. Fighting between Catholics & Huguenots intensifies.
Henry III Had been elected king of Poland-Lithuania before renouncing that throne and returning to France at 23. Had little interest in government affairs- Catherine and her secretaries made most of the decisions Did not have children- no heir to the throne.
The Civil War Continues A proposed marriage between Margaret of Valois and Henry of Navarre was hoped would end the fighting. St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre August 24, 1572 20,000 Huguenots were killed Henry of Navarre, a Bourbon, survived
Henry of Navarre “Prince of the Blood”- Distant relative of Louis IX of France Became heir to the throne after Henry III’s youngest brother died. Was a Huguenot and led soldiers against the Catholics led by Henry of Guise. Henry of Navarre “Prince of the Blood”- Distant relative of Louis IX of France Became heir to the throne after Henry III’s youngest brother died. Was a Huguenot and led soldiers against the Catholics led by Henry of Guise.
Margaret of Valois Arranged marriage to Henry of Navarre in order to bring peace between Catholics & Huguenots. She had numerous affairs including one with Henry of Guise. She was imprisoned by her brother Henry III for 18 years and disinherited by Catherine. Divorced from Henry of Navarre in 1599.
As the power of the Catholic Guise family threatened the stability of the monarchy, Catherine would support the Huguenots in an effort to preserve power for her family. The Massacre created a European struggle for survival among the Calvinists.
“Hercules”: Francis, Duke of Anjou Youngest son of Henry II & Catherine. Created problems for Henry III in by supporting the Huguenots. Was forced out of France and moved to the Netherlands. Was a suitor of Elizabeth I of England. Died at 29. Last direct heir to the throne.
After the death of “Hercules” (the youngest son of Henry II & Catherine) there were no direct heirs to the French throne. The civil war became one not only over religion, but now for the monarchy of France. War of the Three Henrys (1585-1589) King Henry III- monarchy Henry of Guise- Catholic extremist leader Henry of Navarre- Huguenot leader
Henry of Guise Formed the Catholic League in 1576 to defeat the Huguenots and later keep Henry of Navarre off the throne. League was able to control the French government. His uncle had been the Duke of Guise. He was cousin to Mary Queen of Scots, Francis II’s wife.
Fighting continues for 4 years 1589 ♦ Catherine Dies ♦ Henry III & Henry of Navarre make an alliance to strengthen France. ♦ Henry of Guise assassinated under Henry III’s orders. ♦ Henry III assassinated by a Catholic friar who supported the Guises.
Only Henry of Navarre remains. He is able to defeat the Catholic League & becomes Henry IV of France. Effects of Civil War: France was left divided by religion Royal power had weakened Valois family now replaced by Bourbons
Ended Spanish interference in France Converted to Catholicism: Did this to compromise and make peace Tried to win over the Catholic majority of France This was an example of a politique [the interest of the state comes first before any religious considerations] Henry IV of France
Passed Edict of Nantes in 1598: Granted religious rights to Huguenots Did grant religious liberties for Protestants
Charles V- Holy Roman Emperor Charles I of Spain Charles V- Holy Roman Emperor Charles I of Spain Grandson of Ferdinand & Isabella of Spain Born in Flanders (Belgium today) King of Spain 1516-1556 HRE 1519-1558 (he spent only 16 in Spain) Fought against the spread of Protestantism in the HRE Fought against the Muslims in the Mediterranean Supported Spanish conquest of Americas Abdicated throne in 1556: Spain went to son Philip II, HRE to brother Ferdinand
Charles V's European and North African possessions. Blue is Castile, Orange is Aragon, Purple shows Charles's inheritance from Burgundy Green his Habsburg inheritance.
Philip II of Spain (1527-1598) King of Spain 1556-1598 Under his rule, Spain reached the height of its influence and power, directing explorations all around the world and settling the colonization of territories in all the known continents. Fought to retain the Netherlands War with England Fought against the Muslims in the Mediterranean & spread of Islam War with France against Henry and the Huguenots Spain became bankrupt under his reign