Presentation on theme: "Vet Terminology Anaplasia (ahn-ah-plā-zē-ah) is a change in the structure of cells and their orientation to each other. ■ Aplasia (ā-plā-zē-ah) is lack."— Presentation transcript:
1Vet TerminologyAnaplasia (ahn-ah-plā-zē-ah) is a change in the structureof cells and their orientation to each other.■ Aplasia (ā-plā-zē-ah) is lack of development of an organor a tissue or a cell.■ Dysplasia (dihs-plā-zē-ah) is abnormal growth or developmentof an organ or a tissue or a cell.■ Hyperplasia (hī-pər-plā-zē-ah) is an abnormal increasein the number of normal cells in normal arrangement inan organ or a tissue or a cell.■ Hypoplasia (hī-pō-plā-zē-ah) is incomplete or less thannormal development of an organ or a tissue or a cell.
2Vet Terminology Neoplasia (nē-ō-plā-zē-ah) is any abnormal new growth of tissue in which multiplication of cells isuncontrolled, more rapid than normal, and progressive.Neoplasms usually form a distinct mass of tissuecalled a tumor (too-mər). Tumors may be benign(beh-nīn), meaning not recurring, or malignant(mah-lihg-nahnt), meaning tending to spread andbe life threatening. The suffix -oma (ō-mah) meanstumor or neoplasm.■ Atrophy (ah-tō-fē) is decrease in size or complete wastingof an organ or tissue or cell.
3Vet TerminologyDystrophy (dihs-trō-fē) is defective growth in the size of an organ or tissue or cell.■ Hypertrophy (hī-pər-tō-fē) is increase in the size of an organ or tissue or cell.The prefix a- means without, hypo- means less than normal,hyper- means more than normal, dys- means bad, ana- means without, and neo- means new.
4Vet Terminology Glands (glahndz) are groups of specialized cells that secrete material used elsewhere in the body. Aden/o is the combining form for gland. Glands are divided into two categories:exocrine and endocrine (Figure 2–15). Exocrine (ehck-sohkrihn)glands are groups of cells that secrete their chemicalsubstances into ducts that lead out of the body or to anotherorgan. Examples of exocrine glands are sweat glands, sebaceousglands, and the portion of the pancreas that secretes digestivechemicals. Endocrine (ehn-dō-krihn) glands are groups of cells that secrete their chemical substances directly into the bloodstream, which transports them throughout the body
5Vet TerminologyAn organ (ohr-gahn) is a part of the body that performs a special function or functions.bicornuate uterus (bi = two, corn = horn) is a uterus with two horns. Knowing that lateral means pertaining to the side, it would make sense that unilateral (yoo-nihlah- tər-ahl) means pertaining to one side. Bilateral (bī-lahtər- ahl) means pertaining to two sides.
6Vet Terminology Joints Joints or articulations (ahr-tihck-yoo-lā-shuhns) are connectionsbetween bones. Articulate means to join in a way thatallows motion between the parts. Th e combining form for jointis arthr/o. Th e diff erent types of joints are based on theirfunction and degree of movement.Joints are classifi ed based on their degree of movement(Figure 3–4). Synarthroses (sihn-ahrth-rō-sēz) allow nomovement, amphiarthroses (ahm-fi h-ahrthr-ō-sēz) allowslight movement, and diarthroses (dī-ahrth-rō-sēz) allowfree movement.
7Vet Terminology Synarthroses are immovable joints usually united with fi brous connective tissue. An example of a synarthrosis is asuture. A suture (soo-chuhr) is a jagged line where bones joinand form a nonmovable joint. Sutures typically are found in theskull. A fontanelle (fohn-tah-nehl) is a soft spot remaining atthe junction of sutures that usually closes aft er birth.
8Vet TerminologyAmphiarthroses are semimovable joints. An example of anamphiarthrosis is a symphysis. A symphysis (sihm-fi h-sihs)is a joint where two bones join and are held fi rmly together sothat they function as one bone. Another term for symphysis iscartilaginous joint. Th e halves of the mandible fuse at asymphysis to form one bone. Th is fusion is the mandibularsymphysis. Th e halves of the pelvis also fuse at a symphysis,which is called the pubic symphysis.
9Vet TerminologyDiarthroses are freely movable joints. Examples of diarthrosesare synovial joints. Synovial (sih-nō-vē-ahl) jointsare further classifi ed as ball-and-socket joints (also calledenarthrosis (ehn-ahr-thrō-sihs) or spheroid joints),arthrodial (ahr-thrō-dē-ahl) or condyloid (kohn-dih-loyd)joints, trochoid (trō-koyd) or pivot (pih-voht) joints, ginglymus(jihn-glih-muhs) or hinge joints, and gliding joints.
10Vet Terminology Ball-and-socket joints allow a wide range of motion in many directions, such as the hip and shoulder joints.Arthrodial or condyloid joints are joints with oval projectionsthat fi t into a socket, such as the carpal joints (wherethe radius meets the carpus). Trochoid joints include articulating process between successive vertebrae. Primateshave an additional joint called the saddle joint. The onlysaddle joint is located in the carpometacarpal joint of thethumb. This saddle joint allows primates to flex, extend,abduct, adduct, and circumduct the thumb.
12Vet Terminology Ligaments and Tendons A ligament (lihg-ah-mehnt) is a band of fi brous connectivetissue that connects one bone to another bone. Ligament/ois the combining form for ligament. A ligament is diff erent froma tendon. A tendon (tehn-dohn) is a band of fi brous connectivetissue that connects muscle to bone. Th e combining formsfor tendon are ten/o, tend/o, and tendin/o.
13Vet TerminologyBursaA bursa (bər-sah) is a fibrous sac that acts as a cushion toease movement in areas of friction. Within the shoulderjoint is a bursa where a tendon passes over bone. The combiningform for bursa is burs/o. More than one bursa isbursae (bər-sā).
15Vet Terminology Synovial Membrane and Fluid Bursae and synovial joints have an inner lining called thesynovial (sih-nō-vē-ahl) membrane. Th e synovial membranesecretes synovial fl uid, which acts as a lubricant to make jointmovement smooth. Synovi/o is the combining form forsynovial membrane and synovial fl uid.
16Vet TerminologyTh e cranium (krā-nē-uhm) is the portion of the skull thatencloses the brain. Th e combining form crani/o means skull.Th e cranium consists of the following bones (Figure 3–5):■ frontal (frohn-tahl) = forms the roof of the cranial cavityor “front” or cranial portion of the skull. In some species,the horn, or cornual (kohrn-yoo-ahl) process, arisesfrom the frontal bone (Figure 3–6).■ parietal (pah-rī-ih-tahl) = paired bones that form theroof of the caudal cranial cavity.
17Vet Terminology Skull shapes in dogs can vary by breed. Examples of skull shapes in dogs include the following:■ Brachycephalic (brā-kē-seh-fahl-ihck) dogshave short, wide heads, as do pugs andPekingese.■ Dolichocephalic (dō-lih-kō-seh-fahl-ihck)dogs have narrow, long heads, as do colliesand greyhounds.■ Mesocephalic (mehs-ō-seh-fahl-ihck) dogshave average width to their heads, as doLabrador retrievers. Also called mesaticephalic(mehs-āt-ih-seh-fahl-ihck).
18Vet Terminology■ occipital (ohck-sihp-ih-tahl) = forms the caudal aspectof the cranial cavity where the foramen magnum, oropening for the spinal cord, is located. Foramen(fō-rā-mehn) is an opening in bone through whichtissue passes. Magnum (māg-nuhm) means large.■ temporal (tehm-pohr-ahl) = paired bones that form thesides and base of the cranium.■ sphenoid (sfeh-noyd) = paired bones that form part ofthe base of the skull and parts of the floor and sides ofthe bony eye socket.■ ethmoid (ehth-moyd) = forms the rostral part of the cranialcavity.■ incisive (ihn-sīs-ihv) = forms the rostral part of the hardpalate and lower edge of nares.
19Vet Terminology■ pterygoid (tahr-ih-goyd) = forms the lateral wall of thenasopharynx.In addition to bones, the skull also has air- or fl uid-fi lled spaces.Th ese air- or fl uid-fi lled spaces are called sinuses (sīn-uhs-ehz).Let’s Face ItTh e bones of the face consist of the following:■ zygomatic (zī-gō-mah-tihck) = projections from thetemporal and frontal bones to form the cheekbone.■ maxilla (mahck-sih-lah) = forms the upper jaw.■ mandible (mahn-dih-buhl) = forms the lower jaw.■ palatine (pahl-ah-tihn) = forms part of the hard palate.
20Vet Terminologylacrimal (lahck-rih-mahl) = forms the medial part of theorbit.■ incisive (ihn-sī-sihv) = forms the rostral part of the hardpalate and lower edge of nares.■ nasal (nā-sahl) = forms the bridge of the nose.■ vomer (vō-mәr) = forms the base of the nasal septum.Th e nasal septum (nā-sahl sehp-tuhm) is the cartilaginousstructure that divides the two nasal cavities.■ hyoid (hī-oyd) = bone suspended between the mandibleand the laryngopharynx.
21Vet Terminology The vertebral formulas for diff erent species are as follows:■ dogs and cats: C = 7, T = 13, L = 7, S = 3,Cy = 6–23■ equine: C = 7, T = 18, L = 6 (or L = 5 in someArabians), S = 5, Cy = 15–21■ bovine: C = 7, T = 13, L = 6, S = 5,Cy = 18–20■ pigs: C = 7, T = 14–15, L = 6 – 7, S = 4,Cy = 20–23■ sheep and goats: C = 7, T = 13, L = 6–7,S = 4, Cy = 16–18■ chicken: C = 14, T = 7, LS = 14, Cy = 6(lumbar and sacral vertebrae are fused)
22Vet Terminology The vertebral (vər-teh-brahl) column (also called the spinal column and backbone) supports the head and bodyand protects the spinal cord. Th e vertebral column consists ofindividual bones called vertebra (vər-teh-brah). Th e combiningforms for vertebra are spondyl/o and vertebr/o. Morethan one vertebra are called vertebrae (vər-teh-brā).