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Vet Terminology Anaplasia (ahn-ah-plā-zē-ah) is a change in the structure of cells and their orientation to each other. ■ Aplasia (ā-plā-zē-ah) is lack.

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Presentation on theme: "Vet Terminology Anaplasia (ahn-ah-plā-zē-ah) is a change in the structure of cells and their orientation to each other. ■ Aplasia (ā-plā-zē-ah) is lack."— Presentation transcript:

1 Vet Terminology Anaplasia (ahn-ah-plā-zē-ah) is a change in the structure of cells and their orientation to each other. ■ Aplasia (ā-plā-zē-ah) is lack of development of an organ or a tissue or a cell. ■ Dysplasia (dihs-plā-zē-ah) is abnormal growth or development of an organ or a tissue or a cell. ■ Hyperplasia (hī-pər-plā-zē-ah) is an abnormal increase in the number of normal cells in normal arrangement in an organ or a tissue or a cell. ■ Hypoplasia (hī-pō-plā-zē-ah) is incomplete or less than normal development of an organ or a tissue or a cell.

2 Vet Terminology Neoplasia (nē-ō-plā-zē-ah) is any abnormal new growth of tissue in which multiplication of cells is uncontrolled, more rapid than normal, and progressive. Neoplasms usually form a distinct mass of tissue called a tumor (too-mər). Tumors may be benign (beh-nīn), meaning not recurring, or malignant (mah-lihg-nahnt), meaning tending to spread and be life threatening. The suffix -oma (ō-mah) means tumor or neoplasm. ■ Atrophy (ah-tō-fē) is decrease in size or complete wasting of an organ or tissue or cell.

3 Vet Terminology Dystrophy (dihs-trō-fē) is defective growth in the size of an organ or tissue or cell. ■ Hypertrophy (hī-pər-tō-fē) is increase in the size of an organ or tissue or cell. The prefix a- means without, hypo- means less than normal, hyper- means more than normal, dys- means bad, ana- means without, and neo- means new.

4 Vet Terminology Glands (glahndz) are groups of specialized cells that secrete material used elsewhere in the body. Aden/o is the combining form for gland. Glands are divided into two categories: exocrine and endocrine (Figure 2–15). Exocrine (ehck-sohkrihn) glands are groups of cells that secrete their chemical substances into ducts that lead out of the body or to another organ. Examples of exocrine glands are sweat glands, sebaceous glands, and the portion of the pancreas that secretes digestive chemicals. Endocrine (ehn-dō-krihn) glands are groups of cells that secrete their chemical substances directly into the bloodstream, which transports them throughout the body

5 Vet Terminology An organ (ohr-gahn) is a part of the body that performs a special function or functions. bicornuate uterus (bi = two, corn = horn) is a uterus with two horns. Knowing that lateral means pertaining to the side, it would make sense that unilateral (yoo-nihlah- tər-ahl) means pertaining to one side. Bilateral (bī- lahtər- ahl) means pertaining to two sides.

6 Vet Terminology Joints Joints or articulations (ahr-tihck-yoo-lā-shuhns) are connections between bones. Articulate means to join in a way that allows motion between the parts. Th e combining form for joint is arthr/o. Th e diff erent types of joints are based on their function and degree of movement. Joints are classifi ed based on their degree of movement (Figure 3–4). Synarthroses (sihn-ahrth-rō-sēz) allow no movement, amphiarthroses (ahm-fi h-ahrthr-ō-sēz) allow slight movement, and diarthroses (dī-ahrth-rō-sēz) allow free movement.

7 Vet Terminology Synarthroses are immovable joints usually united with fi brous connective tissue. An example of a synarthrosis is a suture. A suture (soo-chuhr) is a jagged line where bones join and form a nonmovable joint. Sutures typically are found in the skull. A fontanelle (fohn-tah-nehl) is a soft spot remaining at the junction of sutures that usually closes aft er birth.

8 Vet Terminology Amphiarthroses are semimovable joints. An example of an amphiarthrosis is a symphysis. A symphysis (sihm-fi h-sihs) is a joint where two bones join and are held fi rmly together so that they function as one bone. Another term for symphysis is cartilaginous joint. Th e halves of the mandible fuse at a symphysis to form one bone. Th is fusion is the mandibular symphysis. Th e halves of the pelvis also fuse at a symphysis, which is called the pubic symphysis.

9 Vet Terminology Diarthroses are freely movable joints. Examples of diarthroses are synovial joints. Synovial (sih-nō-vē-ahl) joints are further classifi ed as ball-and-socket joints (also called enarthrosis (ehn-ahr-thrō-sihs) or spheroid joints), arthrodial (ahr-thrō-dē-ahl) or condyloid (kohn-dih- loyd) joints, trochoid (trō-koyd) or pivot (pih-voht) joints, ginglymus (jihn-glih-muhs) or hinge joints, and gliding joints.

10 Vet Terminology Ball-and-socket joints allow a wide range of motion in many directions, such as the hip and shoulder joints. Arthrodial or condyloid joints are joints with oval projections that fi t into a socket, such as the carpal joints (where the radius meets the carpus). Trochoid joints include articulating process between successive vertebrae. Primates have an additional joint called the saddle joint. The only saddle joint is located in the carpometacarpal joint of the thumb. This saddle joint allows primates to flex, extend, abduct, adduct, and circumduct the thumb.

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12 Vet Terminology Ligaments and Tendons A ligament (lihg-ah-mehnt) is a band of fi brous connective tissue that connects one bone to another bone. Ligament/o is the combining form for ligament. A ligament is diff erent from a tendon. A tendon (tehn-dohn) is a band of fi brous connective tissue that connects muscle to bone. Th e combining forms for tendon are ten/o, tend/o, and tendin/o.

13 Vet Terminology Bursa A bursa (bər-sah) is a fibrous sac that acts as a cushion to ease movement in areas of friction. Within the shoulder joint is a bursa where a tendon passes over bone. The combining form for bursa is burs/o. More than one bursa is bursae (bər-sā).

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15 Vet Terminology Synovial Membrane and Fluid Bursae and synovial joints have an inner lining called the synovial (sih-nō-vē-ahl) membrane. Th e synovial membrane secretes synovial fl uid, which acts as a lubricant to make joint movement smooth. Synovi/o is the combining form for synovial membrane and synovial fl uid.

16 Vet Terminology Th e cranium (krā-nē-uhm) is the portion of the skull that encloses the brain. Th e combining form crani/o means skull. Th e cranium consists of the following bones (Figure 3–5): ■ frontal (frohn-tahl) = forms the roof of the cranial cavity or “front” or cranial portion of the skull. In some species, the horn, or cornual (kohrn-yoo-ahl) process, arises from the frontal bone (Figure 3–6). ■ parietal (pah-rī-ih-tahl) = paired bones that form the roof of the caudal cranial cavity.

17 Vet Terminology Skull shapes in dogs can vary by breed. Examples of skull shapes in dogs include the following: ■ Brachycephalic (brā-kē-seh-fahl-ihck) dogs have short, wide heads, as do pugs and Pekingese. ■ Dolichocephalic (dō-lih-kō-seh-fahl-ihck) dogs have narrow, long heads, as do collies and greyhounds. ■ Mesocephalic (mehs-ō-seh-fahl-ihck) dogs have average width to their heads, as do Labrador retrievers. Also called mesaticephalic (mehs-āt-ih-seh-fahl-ihck).

18 Vet Terminology ■ occipital (ohck-sihp-ih-tahl) = forms the caudal aspect of the cranial cavity where the foramen magnum, or opening for the spinal cord, is located. Foramen (fō-rā-mehn) is an opening in bone through which tissue passes. Magnum (māg-nuhm) means large. ■ temporal (tehm-pohr-ahl) = paired bones that form the sides and base of the cranium. ■ sphenoid (sfeh-noyd) = paired bones that form part of the base of the skull and parts of the floor and sides of the bony eye socket. ■ ethmoid (ehth-moyd) = forms the rostral part of the cranial cavity. ■ incisive (ihn-sīs-ihv) = forms the rostral part of the hard palate and lower edge of nares.

19 Vet Terminology ■ pterygoid (tahr-ih-goyd) = forms the lateral wall of the nasopharynx. In addition to bones, the skull also has air- or fl uid-fi lled spaces. Th ese air- or fl uid-fi lled spaces are called sinuses (sīn-uhs-ehz). Let’s Face It Th e bones of the face consist of the following: ■ zygomatic (zī-gō-mah-tihck) = projections from the temporal and frontal bones to form the cheekbone. ■ maxilla (mahck-sih-lah) = forms the upper jaw. ■ mandible (mahn-dih-buhl) = forms the lower jaw. ■ palatine (pahl-ah-tihn) = forms part of the hard palate.

20 Vet Terminology lacrimal (lahck-rih-mahl) = forms the medial part of the orbit. ■ incisive (ihn-sī-sihv) = forms the rostral part of the hard palate and lower edge of nares. ■ nasal (nā-sahl) = forms the bridge of the nose. ■ vomer (vō-mәr) = forms the base of the nasal septum. Th e nasal septum (nā-sahl sehp-tuhm) is the cartilaginous structure that divides the two nasal cavities. ■ hyoid (hī-oyd) = bone suspended between the mandible and the laryngopharynx.

21 Vet Terminology The vertebral formulas for diff erent species are as follows: ■ dogs and cats: C = 7, T = 13, L = 7, S = 3, Cy = 6–23 ■ equine: C = 7, T = 18, L = 6 (or L = 5 in some Arabians), S = 5, Cy = 15–21 ■ bovine: C = 7, T = 13, L = 6, S = 5, Cy = 18–20 ■ pigs: C = 7, T = 14–15, L = 6 – 7, S = 4, Cy = 20–23 ■ sheep and goats: C = 7, T = 13, L = 6–7, S = 4, Cy = 16–18 ■ chicken: C = 14, T = 7, LS = 14, Cy = 6 (lumbar and sacral vertebrae are fused)

22 Vet Terminology The vertebral (vər-teh-brahl) column (also called the spinal column and backbone) supports the head and body and protects the spinal cord. Th e vertebral column consists of individual bones called vertebra (vər-teh-brah). Th e combining forms for vertebra are spondyl/o and vertebr/o. More than one vertebra are called vertebrae (vər-teh-brā).

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