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The Skeletal System.

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Presentation on theme: "The Skeletal System."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Skeletal System

2 Functions of Bones Support of the body Protection of soft organs
Movement due to attached skeletal muscles Storage of minerals and fats Blood cell formation

3 The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system
Bones (skeleton) Joints Cartilages Ligaments Divided into two divisions Axial skeleton Appendicular skeleton

4 Bones of the Human Body The adult skeleton has 206 bones
Two basic types of bone tissue Compact bone Spongy bone Figure 5.2b

5 Classifications of Bones
Page 144 Figure 5.1

6 Classification of Bones
Long bones Typically longer than wide Have a shaft with heads at both ends Contain mostly compact bone Examples: Femur, humerus

7 Long Bone Anatomy Diaphysis Epiphysis Shaft
Composed mostly of compact bone Epiphysis Ends of the bone Composed mostly of spongy bone Page 145 Figure 5.2a

8 Long Bone Anatomy Periosteum Outside covering of the diaphysis
Fibrous connective tissue membrane Endosteum Lines the inner marrow cavity Red marrow Yellow marrow Figure 5.2c

9 Classification of Bones
Short bones Generally cube-shaped Contain mostly spongy bone Examples: Carpals, tarsals

10 Classification of Bones
Flat bones Thin and flattened Usually curved Thin layers of compact bone around a layer of spongy bone Examples: Skull, ribs, sternum

11 Classification of Bones
Irregular bones Irregular shape Do not fit into other bone classification categories Example: Vertebrae and hip

12 Skeletal Divisions Axial Skeleton Appendicular Skeleton
Bones of the skull and cranium Bones of the Vertebral Column Bones of the ribs and sturnum Appendicular Skeleton Bones of the appendages and pectoral and pelvic girdles

13 The Axial Skeleton Forms the longitudinal part of the body
Skull: 8 cranial bones, 14 facial Vertebral column Thorax

14 The Cranium Frontal Bone
Forms the forehead and superior surface of each eye socket (orbital) Frontal sinuses are air filled pockets that produce mucus that cleans and moistens the nasal cavities

15 The Cranium Parietal Bones
Posterior to the frontal bones, located on each side Forms the roof and superior walls of the cranium

16 The Cranium Occipital Bone
Posterior and inferior portions of the cranium Surrounds the foramen magnum (opening that connects the cranial cavity with the spinal cavity)

17 The Cranium Temporal Bones
Lie below the parietal bones and contribute to the sides and base of the cranium

18 The Cranium Sphenoid Bone Forms part of the floor of the cranium
Unites the cranial and facial bones “Bat” shaped Contains sphenoidal sinuses

19 The Cranium Ethmoid Bone Consists of two “honeycombed” masses of bone
Forms part of the cranial floor Two projections Superior conchae Middle conchae

20 The Skull Zygomatic Bones Found on both sides of the face
Bone curves laterally to form the cheek bone Forms lateral walls of the orbits Figure 6-14

21 The Skull Mandible Bone of the lower jaw
Articulates with the temporal bone at the mandibular fossa Mobile

22 The Skull Maxillary Bone
Articulates will all bones of the face, except the mandible Forms: The floor and medial portions of the rims of the orbits The walls of the nasal cavity The anterior roof of the mouth Figure 6-14

23 The Skull Nasal Articulate with the frontal bone and maxillary bone
Form a bridge midway between the orbits Figure 6-14

24 The Skull Lacrimal Bones
Located within the orbits, on the medial surfaces Articulate with the frontal, ethmoid, and maxillary bones Provide a passageway for the lacrimal (tear) ducts Figure 6-14

25 The Skull Palatine Bone Paired bones of the bony (hard) palate
Roof of the mouth Contribute to the floor of the nasal cavity Figure 6-14

26 The Skull Foramen Magnum
Connects the cranial cavity with the spinal cavity The spinal cord passes through this opening and connects to the inferior portion of the brain Figure 6-14

27 Review… Figure 5.7

28 Review… Figure 5.11

29 Review… Figure 5.9

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