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The Skeletal System The Skeletal System. Functions of Bones  Support of the body  Protection of soft organs  Movement due to attached skeletal muscles.

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Presentation on theme: "The Skeletal System The Skeletal System. Functions of Bones  Support of the body  Protection of soft organs  Movement due to attached skeletal muscles."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Skeletal System The Skeletal System

2 Functions of Bones  Support of the body  Protection of soft organs  Movement due to attached skeletal muscles  Storage of minerals and fats  Blood cell formation

3 The Skeletal System  Parts of the skeletal system  Bones (skeleton)  Joints  Cartilages  Ligaments  Divided into two divisions  Axial skeleton  Appendicular skeleton

4 Bones of the Human Body  The adult skeleton has 206 bones  Two basic types of bone tissue  Compact bone  Spongy bone Figure 5.2b

5 Classifications of Bones Figure 5.1 Page 144

6 Classification of Bones  Long bones  Typically longer than wide  Have a shaft with heads at both ends  Contain mostly compact bone Examples: Femur, humerus

7 Long Bone Anatomy  Diaphysis  Shaft  Composed mostly of compact bone  Epiphysis  Ends of the bone  Composed mostly of spongy bone Figure 5.2a Page 145

8 Long Bone Anatomy  Periosteum  Outside covering of the diaphysis  Fibrous connective tissue membrane  Endosteum  Lines the inner marrow cavity Red marrow Yellow marrow Figure 5.2c

9 Classification of Bones  Short bones  Generally cube-shaped  Contain mostly spongy bone Examples: Carpals, tarsals

10 Classification of Bones  Flat bones  Thin and flattened  Usually curved  Thin layers of compact bone around a layer of spongy bone Examples: Skull, ribs, sternum

11 Classification of Bones  Irregular bones  Irregular shape  Do not fit into other bone classification categories Example: Vertebrae and hip

12 Skeletal Divisions  Axial Skeleton  Bones of the skull and cranium  Bones of the Vertebral Column  Bones of the ribs and sturnum  Appendicular Skeleton  Bones of the appendages and pectoral and pelvic girdles

13 The Axial Skeleton  Forms the longitudinal part of the body  Skull: 8 cranial bones, 14 facial  Vertebral column  Thorax

14 The Cranium  Frontal Bone  Forms the forehead and superior surface of each eye socket (orbital)  Frontal sinuses are air filled pockets that produce mucus that cleans and moistens the nasal cavities

15 The Cranium  Parietal Bones  Posterior to the frontal bones, located on each side  Forms the roof and superior walls of the cranium

16 The Cranium  Occipital Bone  Posterior and inferior portions of the cranium  Surrounds the foramen magnum (opening that connects the cranial cavity with the spinal cavity)

17 The Cranium  Temporal Bones  Lie below the parietal bones and contribute to the sides and base of the cranium

18 The Cranium  Sphenoid Bone  Forms part of the floor of the cranium  Unites the cranial and facial bones  “Bat” shaped  Contains sphenoidal sinuses

19 The Cranium  Ethmoid Bone  Consists of two “honeycombed” masses of bone  Forms part of the cranial floor  Two projections Superior conchae Middle conchae

20 The Skull Figure 6-14  Zygomatic Bones  Found on both sides of the face  Bone curves laterally to form the cheek bone  Forms lateral walls of the orbits

21 The Skull  Mandible  Bone of the lower jaw  Articulates with the temporal bone at the mandibular fossa Mobile

22 The Skull Figure 6-14  Maxillary Bone  Articulates will all bones of the face, except the mandible  Forms: The floor and medial portions of the rims of the orbits The walls of the nasal cavity The anterior roof of the mouth

23 The Skull Figure 6-14  Nasal  Articulate with the frontal bone and maxillary bone  Form a bridge midway between the orbits

24 The Skull Figure 6-14  Lacrimal Bones  Located within the orbits, on the medial surfaces  Articulate with the frontal, ethmoid, and maxillary bones  Provide a passageway for the lacrimal (tear) ducts

25 The Skull Figure 6-14  Palatine Bone  Paired bones of the bony (hard) palate  Roof of the mouth  Contribute to the floor of the nasal cavity

26 The Skull Figure 6-14  Foramen Magnum  Connects the cranial cavity with the spinal cavity  The spinal cord passes through this opening and connects to the inferior portion of the brain

27 Review… Figure 5.7

28 Review… Figure 5.11

29 Review… Figure 5.9


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