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Kingdom Fungi The characteristics of fungi The evolution of the fungi

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Presentation on theme: "Kingdom Fungi The characteristics of fungi The evolution of the fungi"— Presentation transcript:

1 Kingdom Fungi The characteristics of fungi The evolution of the fungi
Fungal classification Fungal life cycles

2 Introduction Fungi are eukaryotes
Nearly all multicellular (yeasts are unicellular) Distinguished from other kingdoms by: Nutrition Structural organisation Growth Reproduction

3 Absorptive nutrition enables fungi to live as decomposers and symbionts
Fungi are heterotrophs that acquire nutrients by absorption Secrete hydrolytic enzymes and acids to decompose complex molecules into simpler ones that can be absorbed Specialised into three main types: Saprobes - absorb nutrients from dead organic material Parasitic fungi - absorb nutrients from cells of living hosts; some are pathogenic Mutualistic fungi - absorb nutrients from a host, but reciprocate to benefit the host

4 Fungi as Saprobes and Decomposers

5 Fungi as Parasites & Pathogens

6 Fungi as Symbionts (Mutualism)

7 Extensive surface area and rapid growth adapt fungi for absorptive nutrition
Basic structural unit of fungal vegetative body (mycelium) is the hypha Except for yeast, hyphae are organised around and within food source: Composed of tubular walls containing chitin Provide enormous surface area: 10cm2 of soil may contain 1km of hyphae with 314cm2 surface area

8 Fungal hyphae may be septate or aseptate
Hyphae of septate fungi are divided into cells by crosswalls called septa Hyphae of aseptate fungi lack cross walls (coenocytic) Parasitic fungi have modified hyphae called haustoria, which penetrate the host tissue but remain outside cell membrane

9 Fungi reproduce by releasing spores that are produced either sexually or asexually
Usually unicellular, haploid and of various shapes and sizes Produced either sexually (by meiosis) or asexually (by mitosis) In favourable conditions, fungi generally clone themselves by producing enormous numbers of spores asexually For many fungi, sexual reproduction only occurs as a contingency - results in greater genetic diversity Spores are the agent of dispersal responsible for geographic distribution of fungi: Carried by wind or water Germinate in moist places with appropriate substrata

10 Reproduce by spores Spores are reproductive cells Formed:
Sexual (meiotic in origin) Asexual (mitotic in origin) Formed: Directly on hyphae Inside sporangia Fruiting bodies Fungi reproduce by releasing spores that are produced either sexually or asexually. The output of spores from one reproductive structure is enormous, with the number reaching into the trillions. Dispersed widely by wind or water, spores germinate to produce mycelia if they land in a moist place where there is food. Penicillium hyphae with conidia Pilobolus sporangia Amanita fruiting body

11 Generalised life cycle of fungi
Sexual Asexual

12 Classification & Phylogeny
asci basidia The phyla of fungi are determined by 1. motility of spores 2. nature of sexual stage Fungi moved onto land with the plants in the Early Paleozoic Much of the evolution of fungi was in conjunction with the evolution of plants and plant parts For example, when roots evolved, fungi were there and helped (mycorrhizas) When wood evolved, fungi evolved to take advantage of it Other evolutionary changes related to animals zygosporangia Classification & Phylogeny motile spores

13 Phylum Chytridiomycota: chytrids may provide clues about fungal origins
Originally placed in Kingdom Protista Share many characteristics with fungi: Absorptive nutrition Chitin cell walls Hyphae Enzymes / metabolism Earliest fungi: evolved from protists and retained flagella

14 Phylum Zygomycota Characterised by dikaryotic zygosporangia
Mostly terrestrial - live in soil or decaying material Some form mycorrhizae, mutualistic associations with plant roots Hyphae are coenocytic - septa only found in reproductive cells Some are pathogens

15 Mycorrhizae Specific, mutualistic association of plant roots and fungi
Fungi increase absorptive surface of roots and exchange soil minerals Found in 95% of vascular plants Necessary for optimal plant growth

16 Life cycle of the zygomycete Rhizopus stolonifer, a common bread mould

17 Life cycle of the zygomycete Rhizopus stolonifer, a common bread mould
Under favourable conditions, reproduces asexually: Sporangia develop at tips of hyphae Mitosis produces hundreds of haploid spores In unfavourable conditions, sexual reproduction occurs: Mycelia of opposite mating types (+ and -) for gametangia that contain several haploid nuclei walled off by the septum Plasmogamy of gametangia occurs  dikaryotic zygosporangium Under favourable conditions, karyogamy occurs: diploid nuclei immediately undergo meiosis producing haploid spores Zygosporangium germinates sporangium which releases recombined haploid spores

18 Phylum Ascomycota: sac fungi produce sexual spores in saclike asci
Include unicellular yeasts and complex multicellular cup fungi Hyphae are septate In asexual reproduction, tips of specialised hyphae form conidia - chains of haploid asexual spores In sexual reproduction, haploid mycelia of opposite mating strains fuse

19 Life cycle of an ascomycete

20 Sac fungi diversity This begins the first of several photographic reviews of fungal diversity. Enjoy the pictures and try and get a feeling of some of the different forms these fungi take and their roles in the environment.

21 Phylum Basidiomycota: club fungi
Named after transient diploid stage: basidium Important decomposers of wood / plant material Include: Mycorrhiza-forming mutualists Mushroom-forming fungi Plant parasites e.g. rusts and smuts Characterised by dikaryotic mycelium that reproduces sexually via basidiocarps

22 Life cycle of a mushroom-forming basidiomycete

23 Life cycle of a mushroom-forming basidiomycete
Haploid basidiospores grow into short-lived haploid mycelia: under certain conditions, plasmogamy occurs Resulting dikaryotic mycelium grows forming mycorrhiza or mushrooms (basidiocarps) Mushroom cap supports and protects gills: karyogamy in the terminal, dikaryotic cells lining the gills produces diploid basidia Resulting basidium immediately undergoes meiosis producing four haploid basidiospores Asexual reproduction less common than in ascomycetes

24 Phylum Deuteromycota The “Imperfect Fungi”
Fungi that seldom or never reproduce sexually. Asexual reproduction by vegetative growth and production of asexual spores common.

25 Moulds Rapidly growing fungus with no sexual stages
May develop into a sexual fungus, producing zygosporangia, ascocarps or basidiocarps Moulds with no known sexual stage are known as Deuteromycota or imperfect fungi: Penicillium Flavour for blue cheeses

26 Yeasts Unicellular: reproduce
Asexually by budding Sexually by producing asci or basidia Saccharomyces cerevisiae is most important domesticated fungus: Baking and brewing Model organism Can cause problems: Rhodotorula: shower curtains Candida: “thrush” Adapted to liquids

27 Lichens Symbiosis of algae with fungal hyphae The alga:
Provides fungus with food May fix nitrogen Fungus provides good environment for growth: Hyphal mass absorbs minerals and protects algae Produces compounds that: shield algae from sunlight are toxic - prevents predation

28 Lichen reproduction Occurs as a combined unit or independently
Fungi reproduce sexually (usually ascocarps) Algae reproduce asexually by cell division Symbiotic units reproduce asexually by: Fragmentation of parent Formation of soredia: small clusters of hyphae with embedded algae

Beneficial Effects of Fungi Decomposition - nutrient and carbon recycling. Biosynthetic factories. Can be used to produce drugs, antibiotics, alcohol, acids, food (e.g., fermented products, mushrooms). Model organisms for biochemical and genetic studies. Harmful Effects of Fungi Destruction of food, lumber, paper, and cloth. Animal and human diseases, including allergies. Toxins produced by poisonous mushrooms and within food (e.g., grain, cheese, etc.). Plant diseases.

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