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Kingdom Fungi (ch. 26) If at first you don’t like a fungus … Just wait a little, It will grow on you. Mycology = study of fungi General Characteristics.

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Presentation on theme: "Kingdom Fungi (ch. 26) If at first you don’t like a fungus … Just wait a little, It will grow on you. Mycology = study of fungi General Characteristics."— Presentation transcript:

1 Kingdom Fungi (ch. 26) If at first you don’t like a fungus … Just wait a little, It will grow on you. Mycology = study of fungi General Characteristics of Fungi Classification into Phyla / Divisions based on Sexual Reproductive Structures Effects on Humans – Diseases & Benefits * You should know all examples *

2 General Characteristics of Fungi Heterotrophic saprophytes (decomposers)  release / recycle inorganic nutrients Reproduce mostly asexually Haplontic life style – grow from haploid spores May also be parasitic, predatory, or form other symbioses

3 General Characteristics of Fungi Secrete digestive enzymes onto food  extracellular digestion  absorption of nutrients Digestive enzymes can digest tough substances, such as cellulose in wood Cell walls made of chitin, a polysaccharide Multicellular, except for yeasts (unicellular) Very efficient nutrient transport in hyphae  grow very fast! Most are poisonous  leave it to the experts to pick the fungus on your plate…

4 Important Symbioses Lichen = alga or cyanobacteria + fungus –> soil formation from rock Mycorrhyzae provide plant roots w/ inorganic nutrients, receive sugars

5 Fungal Structure - Cells Hypha = multinucleated, filamentous cell Nuclei Septate hyphae (septum = dividing wall) Coenocytic hyphae (no septa) Nuclei Cell walls made of chitin Fragmentation (asexual): new fungus grows from fragment ↓

6 Fungal Structure - Body Mycelium = network of hyphae  body of fungus Fruiting body to disperse spores Hyphae Mycelium of fungus on wood

7 “Fairy Rings” are mushrooms (fruiting bodies) that grow at the tips of an underground mycelium:

8 Generalized Fungal Life Cycle Sporulation Diploid Spore Producing Structure: Meiosis (2n  n) Haploid Spore Producing Structure: Mitosis (n  n) /Dikaryotic n n RECOMBINATION: GENETIC DIVERSITY Sporulation SPEED: MAKE SPORES FAST! n + n  2n 2n

9 Basidiomycota “Club Fungi” Basidiomycetes, Ernst Haeckel, 1904

10 Phylum Basidiomycota “Club” Fungi* Asexual reproduction: fragmentation of septate hyphae and asexual spores *Basidium = Diploid Spore Producing Structure: Meiosis (2n  n) PLASMOGAMY Dikaryotic Stage KARYOGAMY Meiosis n Basidiospores Primary mycelium Secondary mycelium Sexual Reproduction n + n  2n + mating type - mating type

11 Rusts & Smuts Affect Plant Crops Wheat stem rust - Puccinia graminis Smut fungus on corn

12 Plylum Ascomycota - “Sac” fungi (largest phylum) Truffles Includes Penicillium mold Cup fungi

13 Penicillium mold, an ascomycete

14 Phylum Ascomycota Ascus = Diploid Spore Producing Structure: Meiosis (2n  n) Conidiophore = Haploid Spore Producing Structure: Mitosis (n  n) n n + n  2n + mating type - mating type

15 Asexual Reproduction in Yeasts (unicellular ascomycote) Budding YEAST (MOTHER) CELL NEW YEAST CELL

16 Recent additions to Ascomycota… Athlete’s food & Ringworm

17 Zygomycota Ex.: black bread mold, Rhizopus stolonifer (asexual)

18 Phylum Zygomycota Zygosporangium = Diploid Spore Producing Structure: Meiosis (2n  n) Sporangium = Haploid Spore Producing Structure: Mitosis (n  n) 2n n + mating type - mating type

19 (informal) Phylum Deuteromycota “Imperfect Fungi” because only observed to reproduce asexually May be moved to other phyla as research continues…

20 Predatory Fungus Nematode-Trapping Fungus Arthrobotrus, a deuteromycete, capturing a round worm (nematode)

21 25 C 37 C Dimorphic Fungi Can exist as mold / hyphal / filamentous form (usually at room temperature) or yeast (body temperature)  several potential pathogens: Histoplasma capsulatum Found in bat and bird feces histoplasmosis; affects mainly lungs, can disseminate through body Candida albicans oral and genital infections

22 Benefits Medicines, including Penicillin, the first antibiotic, isolated from Penicillium fungus Food: edible mushrooms, moldy cheese, fermentation products (wine, beer), leavened bread (aerobic), etc. Biotechnology – yeasts used in research, including cloning of genes

23 Fungal Foods NOT AN ENDORSEMENT OF ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION!!! Yeast, sugar, aerobic respiration  CO 2 makes bread rise Alcoholic fermentation (anaerobic) Mold on blue cheese


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