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FUNGI. YOU MUST KNOW… THE CHARACTERISTICS OF FUNGI IMPORTANT ECOLOGICAL ROLES OF FUNGI IN MYCORRHIZAL ASSOCIATIONS, AND AS DECOMPOSERS AND PARASITIC PLANT.

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Presentation on theme: "FUNGI. YOU MUST KNOW… THE CHARACTERISTICS OF FUNGI IMPORTANT ECOLOGICAL ROLES OF FUNGI IN MYCORRHIZAL ASSOCIATIONS, AND AS DECOMPOSERS AND PARASITIC PLANT."— Presentation transcript:

1 FUNGI

2 YOU MUST KNOW… THE CHARACTERISTICS OF FUNGI IMPORTANT ECOLOGICAL ROLES OF FUNGI IN MYCORRHIZAL ASSOCIATIONS, AND AS DECOMPOSERS AND PARASITIC PLANT PATHOGENS

3 WHAT IS MYCORRHIZAL? A symbiotic (generally mutualistic, but occasionally weakly pathogenic) association between a fungus and the roots of a vascular plant.

4 CONCEPT 31.1 FUNGI ARE HETEROTROPHS THAT FEED BY ABSORPTION

5 EUKARYOTES MULTICELLULAR HETEROTROPHS THAT OBTAIN NUTRIENTS BY ABSORPTION SECRETE HYDROLYTIC ENZYMES, DIGEST FOOD OUTSIDE THEIR BODIES, AND ABSORB THE SMALL MOLECULES

6 CELL WALLS MADE OF CHITIN BODIES ARE COMPOSED OF FILAMENTS CALLED HYPHAE THAT ARE ENTWINED TO FORM THE MYCELIUM HYPHAE ARE DIVIDED INTO CELLS BY SEPTA REPRODUCE BY SPORES NUTRITION MODES INCLUDE DECOMPOSERS, PARASITES, AND MUTUALISTS

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8 CONCEPT 31.4 FUNGI HAVE RADIATED INTO A DIVERSE SET OF LINEAGES

9 FUNGI – 5 PHYLA ASCOMYCOTA (SAC FUNGI) – PRODUCE SEXUAL SPORES IN SAC-LIKE STRUCTURES CALLED ASCI – INCLUDE YEASTS AND SORDARIA BASIDIOMYCOTA (CLUB FUNGI) – INCLUDE MUSHROOMS- IMPORTANT DECOMPOSERS DUETEROMYCOTES – ASEXUAL, QUICK GROWING FUNGUS (MOLDS) MYCOPHYCOTA ZYGOMYCOTA (ZYGOTE FUNGI) – TERRESTRIAL – PARASITES, COMMENSAL SYMBIONTS

10 EXAMPLES Ascomycota – Yeasts, powdery mildews, blue-green molds, morels, truffles Basidiomycota – Mushrooms, smuts, rusts, jelly fungi, puffballs, stinkhorns Deuteromycota – Imperfect Fungi (parasites that cause diseases of plants and animals) Mycophycota - Lichen Zygomycota – Bread mold

11 CONCEPT 31.5 FUNGI PLAY KEY ROLES IN NUTRIENT CYCLING, ECOLOGICAL INTERACTIONS, AND HUMAN WELFARE

12 IMPORTANT DECOMPOSERS OF ORGANIC MATERIAL INCLUDING CELLULOSE AND LIGNIN MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI ARE ASSOCIATED WITH PLANT ROOTS AND IMPROVES THE DELIVERY OF MINERALS TO THE PLANT (MUTUALISM) LICHENS – SYMBIOTIC ASSOCIATIONS OF PHOTOSYNTHETIC MICROORGANISMS (ALGAE) EMBEDDED IN A NETWORK OF FUNGAL HYPHAE 30% OF FUNGI ARE PARASITES


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