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The road to National Exam.  The multiple choice portion of the exam.  No matter how good your teacher is, he/she cannot possibly cover every single.

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Presentation on theme: "The road to National Exam.  The multiple choice portion of the exam.  No matter how good your teacher is, he/she cannot possibly cover every single."— Presentation transcript:

1 The road to National Exam

2  The multiple choice portion of the exam.  No matter how good your teacher is, he/she cannot possibly cover every single detail of 400 years of history in one year. At least not to the level that allows you to get every question correct on the multiple choice portion.  if you get just 50% ( that is 40 questions out of 80) correct you are doing very well.  the questions are randomly chosen and could cover details that your teacher did not cover.  But do not fear. Your raw score is based on the number you get correct, not on the number you missed! For every right answer you get 1.25 points,  So even if you miss half of the questions you come out ahead. So guess. You might luck up and pull a few correct answers from questions you have no clue about.

3  The most important part of the exam is It is an essay question based on documents (usually between 12 and 16) provided to the student at exam time.  Here is the big secret about the DBQ; you do NOT need to know anything about history to score well on this portion of the exam.  That is because the skills that the DBQ is assessing are not historical skills at all. Rather it asses the skill set of interpreting the documents themselves.  Can the student group documents into certain categories?  Does the student use most or all of the documents to support his essay answer?  Does the student understand what the documents say?  And perhaps most importantly, does the student understand the document writers point of view.

4  It is also the only portion of the exam that gives bonus points. Once you have reached the basic criteria of six categories for the question (ie. grouping, pov, and understanding) then extra points are given for doing such things as giving extra groups, pov's and using all of the documents provided.  The DBQ is then given a raw score (1-9) based on those criteria. That score is then multiplied by 4 to give your overall raw score for the DBQ. For example a 6 equals a raw score of 24 and a 7 equals 28 and so on. Remember that an overall raw score of 65 usually gets you a 3 on the exam itself. So if you score a 7 on the DBQ you get a 28. Add that to your multiple choice score and you now have a raw score of 53. You are over half way home (remember the 65) and you have not even taken the last part of the exam

5  The final section of the exam consists of two sets of three questions from various periods of European history.  The student chooses one question from set one and writes an essay on that question. He/She the chooses another question from the second set of three and writes that essay.  Same scoring rules apply for this section as it did from the DBQ section.  Each essay is graded 1-9 and then multiplied by 4 to get the raw score for each essay.  The section is then added to the previous two and the final overall raw scored is given.  So even if you score just a 4 on each essay you will receive a section raw score of 32. Add that to your previous two sections and you have a total raw score of 85. Well above what is needed to get a final grade of 3.

6  First, always write a clear thesis statement in your first paragraph. The people who score the essay portion of the exam read approximately 100 essay a day.  Your goal is to make it easy for them. If your reader has to hunt for the thesis and your handwriting is terrible and you cannot take time to spell things correctly, then your reader is more likely to try to find mistakes in your essay.  The more he finds the lower your score.  Second, write a five paragraph essay (though that is only a guideline) with an opening paragraph and a concluding one.  This helps you to organize your essay and thoughts and makes it so much easier for the reader to follow along.  Remember, make it easy on him.  Lastly, don't try to be funny. Don't try to impress your grader with words you probably don't even understand and most importantly don't BS. AP readers are at the top of their profession and find it very insulting that a high school student would try to pull the wool over their eyes, so to speak.

7 Major Theme: A series of crises in the Later Middle Ages transformed European society. These crises included:  the Black Death (1347)  the Hundred Years War (1337-1453)  the Babylonian Captivity (1309-1377) and Great Schism in the Catholic Church (c. 1377-1415)

8 A. Causes: 1. Bubonic plague was carried by fleas on Asian black rats and brought to Europe on ships returning from Asia 2. Overcrowding in cities and homes facilitated the spread of the disease Many aristocratic families slept in one room and many prosperous peasant families slept in one bed for warmth; less prosperous peasants were even worse off 3. Poor sanitation in cities: garbage-filled streets, human excrement, and dead animals 4. Widespread malnutrition prior to the plague led to poor health (e.g. lower immune systems) that made people more susceptible to the disease 25% harvests in early 14th century were poor as torrential rains destroyed wheat, oats, and hay crops; some instances of cannibalism occurred 5. Poor hygiene also played a significant role Many people believed (correctly) that their water was contaminated and feared taking baths

9 Plague doctors often wore attire, such as seen above, with the beak stuffed with spices or herbs to protect the doctor from the disease.

10 1. In some cities, such as Florence, nearly ½ the population died 2. Economy in towns suffered significantly (while the countryside was less affected by the plague  The plague accelerated an economic decline that had been in effect since the early 14th century 3. In some areas workers enjoyed higher wages as the supply of workers was depleted 4. Impact on the peasantry a. Serfdom ended in many areas in western Europe b. Peasant revolts in England and France increased (had originally been in response to taxation during the Hundred Years’ War) 5. First enclosure of fields in Britain occurred as landowners needed better agricultural production with fewer farm hands; largely done for sheep herding 6. Best of the clergy died (staying behind to help the sick) 7. Jews were often blamed for the plague and thus persecuted  Continued the age-old phenomenon of anti-Semitism in Europe 8. Literature and art reflected pessimism a. Dance of Death (Danse Macabre): dancing skeletons danced among the living, reminding viewers of the prevalence of death. b. Northern Europe developed a morbid fascination with death that was later reflected in the art of the Northern Renaissance. 9. Population did not reach pre-plague level until the mid-16th century.

11 A. Cause: English crown lay claim to the duchy of Aquitaine in France French king confiscated that territory from English control B. The War 1. Most of the war was fought intermittently in France and in the Low Countries 2. By 1415, the major battles had been won by England and Paris itself was now threatened Aside from loss of territory, France was threatened by the rise of a new state in its eastern territory, Burgundy, that allied with England 3. Joan of Arc a. French peasant girl claimed she heard voices of saints and persuaded the king to allow her to be with the troops. b. In 1429 led the French army to victory at Orléans during a crucial stage of the war c. The French heir to the throne was crowned as a result, and the government was thus strengthened d. Joan was later captured by the English and burned at the stake in 1431

12 1. France permanently removed England from France (except for tiny region of Calais) 2. The struggles of war began the modernization of state building in France and England (―New Monarchs ‖ ) 3. Peasant Revolts a. Causes: taxation during Hundred Years’ War, desire for higher wages, hostility toward aristocracy, and higher expectations among the peasantry. Revolts increased in frequency after the Black Death b. English Peasant Revolt (1381) Largest revolt, as many as 100,000 involved c. Jacquerie in France (late 14th-early 15th c.) Peasants not as successful as English peasants in gaining some changes d. Results: Revolts crushed End of serfdom in England c. 1550

13 A. Background 1. Western and central European society was dominated by the Catholic Church since the fall of the Roman Empire. a. Religious authorities in many regions were more powerful than secular authorities b. Popes, at times, were the most powerful political figures in all of Europe 2. The Middle Ages were characterized by religious unity under the Catholic Church a. Meanwhile, the Greek Orthodox Church (Eastern Orthodox Church) was dominant in the Byzantine Empire in the modern- day Balkans and parts of eastern Europe, including Russia. b. There was little cooperation between the Catholic and Orthodox churches

14 1. Marsiglio de Padua: Defender of Peace a. Claimed the church should be subordinate to the state b. Believed the church should be governed by a council of laity and priests superior to the pope. 2. John Wyclif (c.1330-1384) a. Believed the church should only follow Scripture -- This view foreshadowed Martin Luther’s reformation in the early 16th century b. Wrote an English translation of Bible c. His later followers were called Lollards 3. John Hus (c.1369-1415): ideas very similar to Wyclif a. Led a nationalist movement in Bohemia (modern-day Czech Republic) Captured by authorities and burned at the stake for his heretical and political views b. Hussites : followers of Hus, staged large rebellions in the 14th century.

15 1. 1305, a struggle between the pope and the French king led to the election of a French pope who set up his leadership in Avignon, France 2. 7 successive popes resided at Avignon, France 3. This situation damaged papal prestige (esp. in England & Germany) since popes were believed to be unduly influenced by French kings 4. Rome’s economy, meanwhile, was damaged significantly

16 1. Further conflict occurred in 1377 with election of two popes—one in Rome, one in France—neither of whom recognized the other. 2. Further hurt prestige of church Conciliar Movement (1409-1418): Ended the Great Schism 1. Sought to reform the Church by creating a council of cardinals that would be more powerful than the pope 2. Failed as a movement; the newly elected Pope Martin V ensured that papal power still remained supreme

17 A. The Byzantine Empire had been the dominant power in southeastern Europe for nearly a thousand years. 1. It began as the Eastern Roman Empire and lasted long after the Roman Empire in the west disappeared. 2. The Greek Orthodox Church (or Eastern Orthodox Church) was dominant in the Byzantine Empire. B. 1453, the Ottoman Empire took Constantinople, the capital city of the Byzantine Empire and its last major stronghold. 1. Many scholars fled Byzantium to western Europe to escape Turkish rule. 2. Constantinople was renamed Istanbul C. The Ottoman Empire spread northeastward into Europe, taking control of the Balkans and eventually threatening the central European regions of Hungary and Austria.

18 A. Rise in the use of the vernacular (national languages) B. Dante Alighieri (1265-1321), The Divine Comedy (1321) (also considered an early Renaissance figure) C. Geoffrey Chaucer (1340-1400): Canterbury Tales – portrayed English life D. Francois Villon (1431-1463): Grand Testament (1461) – greatest poet of Medieval France  Portrayed ordinary French life with humor and emotion.

19 A. Marriage: avg. age for men = mid-20s; women = 16-18 1. Divorce was unheard of in Catholic countries 2. Economic reasons were most important for marriage (love not paramount until the 18th-19th centuries) 3. Prostitution existed in cities (customers were often young middle- class men who didn’t marry until later) B. Work: 1. Agricultural cycles and church ritual closely linked 2. Small % of men were artisans in towns; protected by guilds 3. Serfdom reduced in many areas C. Recreation 1. Aristocracy – jousting tournaments 2. common people—archery, wrestling, bull-baiting, bear-baiting; alcoholism rampant D. Laity increasingly managed parish lands

20 Thomas Aquinas (1224-1274) A. Scholasticism became the cornerstone of late- medieval philosophy B. Aquinas attempted to reconcile faith and reason by using logic to support Christian doctrine Sought to reconcile Aristotle’s scientific ideas with Christianity C. Scholasticism dominated Catholic philosophy for centuries Challenged severely by Renaissance humanists in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries

21  Black Death, bubonic plague  Hundred Years’ War  Joan of Arc  English Peasant Revolt, 1381  John Wyclif, Lollards  John Hus, Hussites  Babylonian Captivity  Great Schism  Conciliar movement Vernacular  Byzantine Empire  Fall of Constantinople  Ottoman Empire  Dante Alighieri, The Divine Comedy  Geoffrey Chaucer, Canterbury Tales  Francois Villon, Grand Testament  Scholasticism, Thomas Aquinas

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