1347-Year of Calamity Erupted in the Gobi Desert in China and may be due to the LIA After killing around 35 million in Asia, the disease, later to be called the Black Death, enters Europe at an Italian sea port in Oct 1347. By September 1348, it was in England. It followed trade routes At least 25 million people died in Europe; a third of England’s population
Rampant Plague The Italian writer Boccaccio said its victims often "ate lunch with their friends and dinner with their ancestors in paradise." No one understood about the fleas or hygiene No medicine seemed to work After the worst part was over (5 Years) the Plague continued for centuries thereafter sporadically and is still around today, but not active. According to one theory, most people have immunity today because their ancestors survived it. However, the plague was dormant before it’s eruption in 1347, so?
The only “cures” available People burned all manner of incense: juniper, laurel, pine, beech, lemon leaves, rosemary, camphor, sulpher and others Handkerchiefs were dipped in aromatic oils, to cover the face when going out. Towns rang church bells to drive the plague away. Talismans, charms and spells were used as remedies.
Reactions of people to the Plague The Flagellants-Bands of wandering people who whipped themselves to try and expiate the sins of Europe so God would call off the Plague Eat, drink and be merry for tomorrow we die Reassessment of faith placed in the Church Scapegoating-Jews
Results of the Plague: Shortage of Labor More labor saving devices Spiritual faith shaken Church loses some respect and power Relationships between the upper and lower classes change Surviving workers can demand better wages Class conflict Open revolt
How would life be different if the Plague had never come to Europe in 1347? For Europe? For America? For you?
Are there correlations with the Plague and any modern day events?
Vernacular Language Latin is Language after Rome collapsed, at least for educated and upper classes The peasants had their own languages which now become more accepted by everyone and are called vernacular. It is everyday speech. These languages are the roots of the words that Americans and Europeans speak today.
Middle and Modern English Thow seyst that droppyng houses, and eek smoke,And chidyng wyves maken men to flee Out of hir owene hous, a! benedicitee! What eyleth swich an old man for to chide? Thow seyst, we wyves wol oure vices hideTil we be fast, and thanne we wol hem shewe, Wel may that be a proverbe of a shrewe! eekchidyngswich You say that dripping eaves, and also smoke, And wives contentious, will make men to flee Out of their houses; ah, benedicite! What ails such an old fellow so to chide? You say that all we wives our vices hide Till we are married, then we show them well;That is a scoundrel's proverb, let me tell! Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales
Dante -1265 Latin was for scholarly work However, he used language of Tuscan common people to write poetry and it became language of all Italy The Divine Comedy or “when I write a book I am not going to change the names” Story: Virgil and Beatrice guide Dante through hell, paradise and purgatory
Lucifer eating traitors at the bottom most level of Hell
Vernacular literature Troubadours-lyrical poems set to music National epics- The Song of Roland and The Ring Saga – about national heroes Fabliaux-short comic mocking stories Dramas-Mystery plays, morality plays,
Educational System Monasteries and small schools in cities teach for a fee Teacher’s guild is called universitas which is the basis of what word today?
“Teachers could not leave the university, under penalty of death, or even go out of town without permission. They had to swear absolute obedience to the student-elected student rector, who at the behest of the general assembly could pass or change any rule. The students collected the fees, paid the salaries, and issued the working rules; if the teacher cut a class, he was fined; likewise, if he could not draw five students, if he skipped a chapter or a difficulty, of if he kept on talking after the ringing of the bell. At any time the lecturer could be interrupted by a beadle summoning him to appear before the rector and learn of his misdeeds. As a historian of universities, Rashdall, puts it: "By means of the terrible power of boycotting which they could bring into play against an offending professor, the student clubs were masters of the situation".” Want to be a teacher in the 1200’s ?
Want to be a student in the 1200’s? Constant violent fighting to settle debates Money a huge problem Students rooms were rented out to gain extra money: usually to prostitutes All boys; 13 -15 years of age Common reports of chaos in the classroom Teacher had to be 20 Teacher could beat lazy students University ruled by cliques-led to constant manipulations, shady deals, lying, jealousy
Scholasticism- the marriage of faith and reason Abelard-Pointed out many problems with Church writings and doctrine and argued that reason and faith were irreconcilable. A great rebel and made enemies every where he went. Got a Canon’s niece pregnant and was castrated. Did not leave the Church though. Thomas Aquinas -Wrote how Church doctrine was logical and could be arrived at by faith and reason. Basis of Roman Catholic Church today.
Science Minimal advancement in scholarly areas Practical Knowledge increases Winches, pulleys. ships, iron plows, yokes, windmills, waterwheels are all improved Arabs preserved the Science of the Greeks but Europeans had little interest in it Math and optics were of some interest 1500’s Scientific exploration begins again
Art and architecture Romanesque Dark, dome, Heavy look and feel Low to the ground Frescos Relief sculpture Gothic Soaring spires More glass More light Spires Flying buttresses Color Statues of Holy Family and Saints
Patriotism As manors decline, people’s loyalties shift to that of a larger unit, the city, then the kingdom. People begin to develop a national identity and the idea of a nation state is born. People are increasingly loyal to a country
The 100 Year’s War Basically Edward II of England laid claim to the French throne and the French said not in this life. Their respective offspring continued to have conflicts over this issue for about a 100 years
Results of the War in England New weapons made larger scale war and longer range war easier Castles no longer as safe Knights could not win over longbows and gunpowder Smaller guns begin to be used and increases causalities Feudalism is getting its deathblow Parliament ‘s power grows because the King needs them to finance his wars. They obtain the power to approve all taxation The nobles are increasingly fewer and more dependent on the King Government is centralizing Church is losing more of its power
The French and the 100 years of War Fought on their land Starvation and disease prevalent Kings lost some power as a result Infighting amongst the two branches of the royal family Burgundy and Orleans Joan Of Arc
Visions and Voices save a city and crown a King
Joan’s Martyrdom results in renewed Patriotism and France drives out the English
France’s Parliament Philip IV or the Fair organizes Estates General 4 estates of society to help King rule Never worked well Never gained enough rights to be taken seriously Consequently Power is in the King first and nobles secondly French peasants have minimal rights as compared to England
Back on home turf, English War of the Roses Henry VII defeats Richard III at Bosworth Field (My kingdom for a horse) White versus Red The Tudor Dynasty begins
Spain Until 1236, under the domination of Muslim Moors but not willingly Constant fighting against the Moorish holdings by the Spaniards drives them back towards Africa As of 1236, only Granada held by Moors but the country is not united Isabella and Ferdinand chase out the last Moorish caliph and unite Spain as one country “do not cry for as a woman for that which you could not hold as a man”
The Spanish Inquisition was dedicated to rooting out evil
German and Italian regions Germany and Italy did not become strong centralized nations until the 1800’s Habsburg empire, centered in Austria, dominated the areas of Germany, Switzerland, and Czechoslovakia Hapsburgs use the title Holy Roman Emperor
VI. Challenges to Church Power People and times are a-changing Trade increasing Travel increasing Urban areas grow and people are mingling Wars bring increased contact and allow new ideas to spread Church Law does not always help one to get rich Church power weakened by Plague Kings power increasing Much of the Church is wealthy and worldly and now people begin to question this People questioning, skeptical, learning new ways from contact with Muslins and Greeks
1294- Boniface VIII and Philip IV of France clash over whether clergy should pay taxes to the kingdom
Internal Problems of the Church Philip gets one of his French cardinals elected Pope and that Paope moves the Papacy to Avignon in where else? France! The Babylonian Captivity The last of the 7 French Popes Returns Papacy to Rome in 1377 As soon as he dies, the Italians elect an Italian Pope The French Cardinals elect a French Pope in response to the Italian Pope,who remains in Avignon Each excommunicate the other Basically a religious civil war alco called The Great Schism 1378 to 1417 1414, A church Council deposes both and elects a new pope
Criticism of the Church “Defender of the Peace” – argued that the Pope had no worldly powers and should be elected by a council of mixed laity and clergy John Wycliffe-1382 Promoted the first translation of the Bible into English Jan Hus- rector at University of Prague- Burned at the stake for asking for reforms Some trace Protestantism’s roots to Hus
Indulgences Bought a piece of paper that stated the good works of the buyer had paid off a particular sin or sins in the buyer’s life
How would life be different if the Power of the church had not lessened For Europe? For America? For you?
So what do you think of the Middle or Dark Ages? Does it deserve the name of Dark or not? What kind of a time would you call it? Would you want to live then or not? Why? What do you think of some of the people we met? Does might make right or does right make might or are neither connected?