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Medieval Europe: Moving Towards Renaissance. Medieval Universities By the 1100s, schools had arisen around the great cathedrals to train clergy Quickly.

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Presentation on theme: "Medieval Europe: Moving Towards Renaissance. Medieval Universities By the 1100s, schools had arisen around the great cathedrals to train clergy Quickly."— Presentation transcript:

1 Medieval Europe: Moving Towards Renaissance

2 Medieval Universities By the 1100s, schools had arisen around the great cathedrals to train clergy Quickly became a status symbol for European cities Women were not allowed to attend university Knowledge of classical Greece, which had been preserved by Muslim scholars, returned to Europe during Crusades

3 University Life 6 days a week 5 AM: attend prayers 5 – 10 AM: attend classes lessons were in Latin, students sat for hours on hard wooden benches, expected to memorize what they heard, students paid teacher for each class 10 AM: first meal of day 11 AM – 5 PM: attend classes 5 PM: last meal of day after dinner, studied until bed all exams were oral

4 A Medieval Classroom

5 St. Thomas Aquinas Aquinas used logic and reason to defend Christian teachings – united Christian faith with Greek philosophy to argue that God rules over an orderly universe and that the laws of nature prove intelligent design Marks the return of logic and reason to European thinking and a move away from emotional superstition

6 Science and Math Little truly “European” development, but returning Crusaders brought back: – Arabic numbers which replaced outdated Roman numerals – Scientific knowledge of the classical Greeks + the scientific achievements of Islamic scholars (like algebra)

7 Medieval Literature Heroic epics – France’s Song of Roland – Spain’s Cantar de Mio Cid Dante’s Divine Comedy, including its most famous book, The Inferno (from Italy) Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales (from England)

8 Gothic Cathedrals Massive churches which major cities constructed as a sign of their wealth Defining features: – flying buttresses (to carry weight of stone) – stained glass windows, bas relief door panels (to illustrate Bible stories for the illiterate) – built in the shape of a cross – gargoyles (scared away evil spirits, helped with water drainage from roof)

9 Notre Dame Cathedral

10 The Black Death Plague began in China, killing 35 million there Plague spread across Asia, carried by fleas on Mongol caravans, killing millions more at a rate of about 7000 per day Rats carrying plague arrived in Italy via merchant ships in 1347 By 1348, plague had spread from Italy to Spain and France; over the next few years it reached all corners of Europe

11 Plague & The Silk Roads

12 Consequences of Plague Caused a collapse of social systems – many lost faith in the Church – many blamed the Jews, deepening religious persecution – many abandoned their families to flee plague – too many workers died, damaging the economy As many as 50% of Europeans may have died

13 A Weakened Church Papal seat had been moved to Avignon, France The French popes were largely corrupt and favored French interests Angered, some bishops elected a new pope in Rome in 1378; until 1417 there were two popes, each claiming authority over the Catholic Church Eventually the Papal seat returned to Rome, but power of the pope had been badly damaged by the infighting

14 The Hundred Years War (really, that’s 116 years) Fought mainly between England and France in French territory First European war to see the use of guns and cannons thanks to introduction of Chinese gunpowder

15 Joan of Arc In 1429, 17 year old Joan of Arc (a girl) convinced King Charles VII of France that God had sent her a vision telling her to lead his army to victory She led French to numerous victories for the next year, but then was captured by the English and burned at the stake for witchcraft The angry French considered Joan a martyr (someone who dies for their beliefs) and rallied to drive the English out of France

16 Consequences of War Temporarily broke English power and allowed France to dominate Europe Cannons made knights and castles obsolete because they could not stand up to them Since knights no longer afforded protection to the serfs from cannons, the feudal system in Europe began to fail

17 Fall of Constantinople (tpenny) Constantinople was capital of Eastern Roman Catholic Church (Greek Speaking) Current day-Istanbul, Turkey Captured by Ottoman Turks (Muslim) 7 week siege April- May 1453 Several Greeks and non-Greeks fled capital; went to Italy; brought more classical Greek knowledge lost or forgotten during Dark Ages Marks the end of the Roman Empire and to some historians the end of the Middle Ages


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