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Chapter 5: Reform, Resistance and REvolution

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1 Chapter 5: Reform, Resistance and REvolution
AP US History Chapter 5: Reform, Resistance and REvolution

2 Aftermath of War The French and Indian War was very costly
War Minister William Pitt was forced to resign in 1761 after suggesting a preemptive strike on Spain before they entered the war George Grenville became finance minister Overall, debt doubled during the war, nearly bankrupting Great Britain Troops were kept in North America after the war as protection Grenville expected the colonists to eventually foot the bill for that protection, but not the national debt Proclamation of 1763: line drawn along the Appalachian Mountains, preventing settlement west of the boundary Meant to keep peace with Natives, but colonists resented the law

3 Native American Resistance
Pontiac’s Rebellion, War led by several Native American nations Conquered most British posts in the West Peace was restored between the British and the Native American tribes, but an uneasy peace at best Paxton’s Boys Pennsylvania frontier settlers that began slaughtering peaceful Indians in the winter of 1763 Denounced by the PA government However, more violence on Native Americans continued for years to come in the frontier areas of the British empire

4 ©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc
©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license. After the French and Indian War, all lands east of the Mississippi River (except the port city of New Orleans) became British territory. The Proclamation of made it illegal for British colonists to settle west of the Appalachian Mountains, angering countless. In response to British colonists ignoring the Proclamation, Ottawa Chief Pontiac attacked and conquered several British forts, sparing only a handful. North America, 1764

5 Imperial Reforms Sugar Act, 1764: tax designed to prevent smuggling of molasses and encourage purchase of British molasses Currency Act of 1764: outlawed colonial paper money, requiring taxes to be paid in specie Quartering Act of 1765: gave authority to quarter troops in private homes if necessary Stamp Act of 1765: taxed most paper products, including legal documents, playing cards, newspapers, and pamphlets First direct tax on the colonies, raised questions over internal and external taxation and “virtual representation” in Parliament Enraged the colonists, called it “taxation without representation”

6 Colonial Reactions Stamp Act Congress, 1765 Sons of Liberty
Many colonies sent delegates to propose resolutions condemning the Stamp Act and the Sugar Act Sons of Liberty Group of men in Boston that resorted to violence to get message of resentment towards the Stamp Act across Hung an effigy of Andrew Oliver, the stamp distributor, in the town’s Liberty Tree and threatened violence on tax collectors offices and homes Nonimportation Agreements Passed to boycott importation of British goods All colonies eventually nullified the law Law repealed by Parliament in 1766 Passed two new laws in response Declaratory Act: gave Parliament authority to pass laws over the colonies Revenue Act of 1766: tax on all molasses, domestic and foreign

7 Boston Massacre The Sons of Liberty were directly attacking British army soldiers in the colonies Soldiers could not fire on civilians unless given an order or in self defense On the night of March 5, 1770, an unruly crowd began heckling and throwing rocks at a group of Redcoats Shots were fired, and after the smoke cleared, 5 civilians laid dead, including a free black man by the name of Crispus Attucks The soldiers were put on trial, represented by John Adams Adams was against the role of the soldiers in Boston, but also believed in the right to a fair trial, thus why he took their case Most soldiers were acquitted, while two, found guilty of manslaughter, were branded on the thumb and released Failed attempt by the British to use military power over the colonists

8 The Townshend Acts New taxes were implemented on the colonies in 1766 after repeal of the Stamp Act Items taxed included tea, lead, paint, paper and glass Overall, very little resistance to the taxes Designed to pay for judges and governor’s salaries in the colonies However, some colonies still objected Circular Letter: urged colonial assemblies to resist the Townshend Acts and Quartering Act New non-importation agreements commenced after British Parliament denounced the Circular Letter Meanwhile, the Sons of Liberty escalated violence throughout the colonies

9 Repeal of Townshend Acts
Later in 1770, all provisions of the Townshend Acts were repealed, except one – a tax on tea Colonists pointed fingers at each other over why the tea tax remained Britain stepped up efforts to curb smuggling and enforce the tea tax Colonists established committees of correspondence to stay in contact with one another on British actions The tax pushed the colonies further towards unity – and the road to war later in the decade The last straw was the passage of the Tea Act in 1773; the law repealed the tax in Britain, but not in the colonies

10 Boston Tea Party: The Beginning of the End…
In response to the Tea Act, the Boston Tea Party took place on December 16, 1773 Sons of Liberty dressed up as Native Americans and boarded British tea ships docked in Boston Harbor 342 chests of tea, worth nearly $1 million in today’s money, was thrown into the harbor Britain’s responded with the Coercive Acts, also known as the Intolerable Acts Boston Harbor was closed until payment for the tea was made A new Quartering Act allowed for troops in private homes British soldiers accused of a crime would be tried in Britain British General Gage was made governor of MA and town hall meetings were restricted Quebec Act: expanded the boundaries of the Province of Quebec and instilled French civil law there In response, all colonies but Georgia organized the First Continental Congress, meeting for the first time in 1774

11 First Continental Congress
Agreed that action must be taken against the British New non-importation agreements and a non-exportation of goods if no action by September 1775 Agreed no taxation and legislation without representation Petitioned King George III for redress of their grievances Repeal the Intolerable Acts Reinstate trial by jury Agreed to meet again in May 1775 and created the Association Enforced trade sanctions against Great Britain Began to act as a central government to the colonies

12 “The Shot Heard Round the World…”
Colonists in MA started amassing weapons and training a militia near Concord Upon learning, General Gage ordered troops to march on Concord and destroy the weapons cache On the night of April 18-19, 1775, word traveled from Boston to the countryside of the Redcoats’ intentions Paul Revere and Samuel Prescott got the message to Concord By morning and the arrival of the Redcoats, the militia had gathered in Lexington Unknown who fired the first shot, a skirmish erupted between the militia and the Redcoats Several colonists and Redcoats were killed or wounded The colonists fired upon the troops all the way back to Boston The American War for Independence was officially on

13 The War for Independence 1775-1776

14 The War for Independence and the Second Continental Congress
In May 1775, the Continental Congress met as planned Now have to act as a government for the colonies Needed to raise money and build a fighting force; appointed George Washington as commander of the Continental Army However, did attempt to solve the crisis peacefully Olive Branch Petition: sent to the King, professed loyalty Rejected by King George III Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking Up Arms: outlined the reasons why the colonists were fighting Battle of Bunker Hill Actually fought on Breed’s Hill, June 17, 1775 Colonials rained gunfire down from the top of the hill on the British Redcoats, inflicted great loss on the British Eventually ran out of ammo and had to withdraw

15 Towards Independence Two separate invasions of Canada were attempted in late 1775, with the intent of gaining support from the French Montreal and Quebec City were invaded, but eventually the Americans were repelled Washington had to deal with retraining his army after volunteers left at the end of their enlistments By the summer of 1776, the colonials controlled territory in all colonies The Continental Congress began to talk of independence Thomas Paine’s Common Sense, debuting in January 1776, outline the reasons for independence and outlined a republican government Thomas Jefferson was asked to draft a Declaration of Independence in May 1776 Declaration was presented to the Continental Congress on July 2, 1776 After a few minor changes, the Declaration was adopted on July 4, 1776

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